Computer Organization

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ASSEMBLY

Definition of Terms
Program - a set of instructions that tells the computer to perform a particular task.  
Programming – refers to the process of designing and creating computer programs.  
Programming Language - a software tool that facilitates the translation of human instructions to a form that computers can understand.  
Programmer - a person who can design, create, and maintain computer programs.  
Algorithm - a step by step solution of a problem.

Levels of Programming Languages
1. High-level Languages - these are languages that are easy to learn and understand because of their english-like instructions or commands. Examples of languages that are under this category are COBOL, Visual BASIC, FoxPro, and HTML. 2. Middle-level Languages - these are languages that have the basic features of a high-level language and the functionalism of symbolic language like Assembly language. Example of language that is under this category is C++. 3. Symbolic Languages - these are languages that uses mnemonic codes in representing instructions or commands. Example of a language under this category is Assembly language. 4. Machine Language - a language more understandable to machine than to human. It uses a pattern of 0 and 1 to represent instructions.

Steps in Program Development
1. Understand the problem.
Determine the input, output, and processing requirements of the program. 2. Create a solution that might solve the problem.
Solution can be represented in a form of a flowchart, pseudocode, or narrative statement. 3. Translate the solution into a computer program using a programming language that you are very familiar with. 4. Encode the program.

5. Test and debug the program.
6. Document your program for future references.
Must include:
* Source Code
* Data Structures used
* Sample Output

What is Assembly Language ?
  Assembly Language is the fastest and most efficient programming language in any computer. It allows programmers to unravel and make use of the hardware’s features than any existing languages.  

Advantages of Using Assembly Language
1. The executable code is smaller than those created in other programming languages. 2. Naturally, if the executable program is small, the program can be loaded in the computer memory faster. 3. Assembly language have a better control of the peripheral than other programming languages. 4. The executable code is more efficient than those created in other programming languages.  

When To Use Assembly Language
1. To do something that is impossible or awkward with High-level language. 2. To speed-up a slow program.
3. To design a program to be as small as possible.
4. To control peripheral devices in a more efficient manner 5. For enjoyment.

The Assembly Language Programmer
1. Must have good organizational skills.
2. Must have that sort of personality that enjoys attending to details. 3. Must be able to read and understand reference manuals. 4. Needs good arithmetic skills, especially with other numbering systems like hexadecimal numbers. 5. Must be familiar with computer’s basic architecture. 6. Must have patience and persistence.

7. Must be obsessive.
 

Processing Assembly Language Programs
Softwares to be used:
1. Editors – refer to programs that can be used to create or edit assembly language programs. Programs like EDIT or NOTEPAD can be used for this purpose. Example:
EDIT myprog.asm
NOTEPAD myprog.asm
 
2. Assemblers – refers to programs that translate an assembly language program into its equivalent machine language program. Borland’s Turbo Assembler or Microsoft’s Micro Assembler can be used for this purpose. Example:

TASM myprog
MASM myprog
3. Linkers – refer to...
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