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computer Chapter INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER IX One Q - 1) Define the term computer? or Define computer? Ans: Computer is an electronic and automatic device that accepts data and instruction (In form of program) as Input and process it and produces the results or information as Output. It has also capability to plug and play different devices. Q - 2) Define Hardware and Software? Hardware: The physical and tangible components forming a computer are called “Hardware”. It includes not only the computer system but also cables, connectors, power supply units and peripherals such as Keyboard, Mouse, Audio Speaker, Printer etc. Software: The software refers to the program that instructs the computer what to do. Or The term Software refers to non – physical elements of a computer system. Software makes the hardware usable. Such as Ms. Office, Corel Draw, Oracle etc. Q - 3) Define a programming language and state its type: Ans: Programming language:
A set of rules that provides a way of telling a computer what operations to perform, is called programming language. It is classified into three types machine language, assembly language and high level language. Q - 4) Define a programming language and state its type briefly: Ans: Programming language: A set of rules that provides a way of telling a computer what operations is to perform, is called Programming language. It is categorized into three types as under. Machine language: (Low Level Language) Computer has its own unique machine language to perform specific tasks. It is based on binary codes 0s and 1s to execute given instructions. All instructions in machine language consists of series of 0s and 1s. It is very difficult to write program in machine language. Assembly language: (Low Level Language) Each computer has its own unique assembly language. In this language the statements are written in symbolic code (Mnemonics) that are easier for human to read and write Such as A for Add and L for Load. The main reason for writing assembly language program is efficiency and produce faster program. High Level Language: (Related Human language) High level languages are closer to human language than low level language, and include statements like Goto and Print which are regular words. There are various high level languages such as FORTORN, PASCAL, COBAL etc. Address:110/2, Gulbahar No. 2, (400 qtrz) Karachi 18
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Q - 5) State types of computer or classification of computer: Ans: Computer is classified according to purpose, type of data handled and capacity. Purpose: Whether it is general purpose or special purpose. Data handled: Whether it is using analog or digital data or combination of both. Capacity: Whether the volume of work that it can handle, is large or small. Q - 6) State types of computer according to purpose: Ans: There are two types of computer according to purpose General and Special purpose.
General purpose: These computer are designed to handle a variety of different problems and to meet different needs such as Payroll, Account, Inventry Control etc. These are strong in versatility but normaly weak in speed and efficiency. Special purpose: These computer are designed to handle specific problems and perfom specific tasks. Such as Satellite Tracking, Air Traffic Control and Industrial Process Control etc. Q - 7) State types of computer according to data handling: Ans: There are three types of computer according to data handling. Analog computers: These computers use analog method to process data. These computer operate on numbers represented by directly measurable quantities which vary nonstop. EC – 1 and Vannervar Bush's Differential Analyzer are examples of these computers. Digital computers: These computers handle discrete values (0 or 1) or real numbers. These computers are specialized in...