Computer Fundamentals

Topics: Computer, Personal computer, ENIAC Pages: 79 (3803 words) Published: February 25, 2015
PRELIM

COMPUTER
What is a Computer?
A computer is an electronic machine that can be programmed to accept data (input), process it into useful information (output), and store it in a storage device for future use

Characteristics of a Computer
•It’s a machine.
•It is electronic.
•It is automatic.
•It can manipulate data.
•It has memory
•It has logical function

Capabilities of a Computer
• Speed
• Accuracy
• Repetitiveness
• Storage
• Programmable

Limitations of a Computer


Cannot operate without a set of

instructions.
• Cannot derive from objects.
• Can detect errors but cannot correct
them.
• Computer are subjects to occasional
breakdowns.
• Cannot run without electric power.

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS
ACCORDING TO PURPOSE
(General and Specific)

General-purpose computers- capable of dealing
a variety of different problems.

with

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS
Special-purpose computers
- designed to perform
specific task, with
limited capabilities, and
the program of
instructions is built into
the machine

Program is a sequence of instructions that
determine the operations to be carried out by
the machine

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS
ACCORDING TO DATA HANDLED
(Analog, Digital, Hybrid)

Analog computer – used for scientific,
engineering and process-control purposesoperations that result to approximate values.

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS
Digital computer – used for business applications,
and also scientific operations, and are ideal when
100% accuracy is desired, thus resulting to data that
are exact in values.

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS
Hybrid computer – incorporate in a single machine the
capabilities of the analog and digital computers. They
are used in space vehicle simulations and training of
astronauts.

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS
ACCORDING CAPACITY
(Microcomputers, Minicomputers,
Mainframes, & Supercomputers)

Microcomputers -

Small computers which are portable

that use microprocessor. Ex: Desktops, Laptop, Notebooks,
PocketPC and Pen Computers

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS
Minicomputers
- Machines, which are in the middle of
microcomputers and mainframes in terms of cost
and capability. These acts as “servers” w/c are
connected to several workstations or terminals.

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS
Mainframes
- The oldest category, these are air-cooled
computers bigger in sizes. Used mostly by
banks, airlines, and insurance companies
that handles millions of transactions.

CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS
Super computers
- the biggest and the fastest computers. They can
perform 50 million instructions/sec and are used in
applications such as nuclear weapon dev’t and accurate
weather forecasting. The fastest calculating device ever
invented.

EVOLUTION OF COMPUTERS

Pre-modern Era

Manual-mechanical device
- device powered by hand and
physical effort from the user.

Electro-mechanical device
- powered by electronic motors
and use switches and relays.
Electronic devices
- use only electrical switches and
circuitry instead of mechanical
relays. Principal components; circuit
boards, transistors or silicon chips.

MANUAL-MECHANICAL

Abacus
- The first man-made
computing device that uses
beads. Invented in
Mesopotamia, and
commercially used in China.

MANUAL-MECHANICAL
John Napier

Napier’s Bones
- An arrangement of bones wherein numbers are
printed

MANUAL-MECHANICAL
William Oughtred

Oughtred’s Slide Rule
- Consists of movable bars with a precise scale,
which uses approximations for solving problems

MANUAL-MECHANICAL
Blaise Pascal

Pascaline
- The first mechanical calculator (adding machine)
that uses cogged wheels.

MANUAL-MECHANICAL
Wilhelm Gottfried Leibnitz

Leibnitz Calculator
- The improved Pascaline which could multiply and
divide

MANUAL-MECHANICAL

Charles Babbage

Babbage’s Difference and Analytical
Engines
- These engines...
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