Tutor: Geoff Stanley
Name: Dung bui
Word count: Assignment- 2457
Reflection essay: 522
Nature of Management0
Complexity in human resource management1
Power and politics in organisation4
Types of power5
Self- reflection essay7
Management is the act of getting individuals together to undertake desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organising, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organisation (a group of one or more people or entities) or effort for the purpose of accomplishing a goal. Resourcing encompasses the development and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources. Although these activities have to be undertaken the context in which they take place tends to be far more irrational and complex. According to Jackson (2003), the term “complexity” is defined as below: “Complexity stems from the nature of problems. They rarely present themselves individually, but come related to other problems, in richly interconnected problem situations that are appropriately described by Russ Ackoff as ‘messes’. As a result once you examine them, problems seem to get bigger and to involve more issues and stakeholders.” Complexity is common term in business world today because it shows a current reality of every organisation in which managers have to face with challenges in managing human and technology resource as well as how they control the organisations in terms of power and politics. In this paper, we will have a deeper research of complexity in management through the specific cases of IBM and AT&T.
Nature of Management
Theoretical scope shows significant contribution of Henri Fayol to the very first concept of management. At the begining, one views management functionally, such as measuring quantity, adjusting plans, setting and meeting goals, foresighting/forecasting. This applies even in situations when planning does not take place. From this perspective, Henri Fayol (1917) considers management to consist of six functions: forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling. He stated the Principles of Management including: 1. Division of work.
4. Unity of command.
5. Unity of direction.
6. Subordination of individual interests to the general interest. 7. Remuneration.
9. Scalar chain.
12. Stability of tenure of personnel.
14. Esprit de corps.
Fayol's work has stood the test of time and has been shown to be relevant and appropriate to contemporary management. Today many management texts including Daft have reduced the six functions to four: (1) planning; (2) organizing; (3) leading; and (4) controlling. However, some people find this definition useful but far too narrow. The phrase "management is what managers do" occurs widely, suggesting the difficulty of defining management, the shifting nature of definitions and the connection of managerial practices, which show how complex it could be. The complexity might come from control or from individual’s emotion or even from problems caused during group work.
Complexity in human resource management
Firstly, in order to research deeply on complexity in practices, we consider the case study of IBM- Internaltional Business Machines, one of the largest producers of calculating, computing and office machinery, a lesson of individual-group-organisation facing a major change caused by the innovation of new technologies. In general, the new technology promises to upgrade the entire working group. The semi- skilled machine...