Power Works Best When It Is Seen Least

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Power is define as the capacity of an individual to influence others, tempt others to persuade and encourage others to obtain specific administrative goals or to engage in specific behaviour (Cangemi, 1992). According to French and Raven’s (1960) there are five bases of power which can be divided into formal power and personal power (Robbins, 2011). The first formal power is coercive power, which is based upon punishment by these individual to power for failure to conform or achieve administration goals (French & Raven in Warren, 1969). Where else in reward power it is the ability to distribute rewards that viewed as valuable to others (French & Raven in Warren, 1969). As for legitimate power it occurs when an individual has status and are able to influence subordinates or super ordinals as people privately believe that the individual deserves such a position (Tiedens, 2001). According to Blau (1956) legitimate power are subordinates following the order of their leader as they respect their leader and the leader position (Blau in Tiedens, 2001). The next will be expert power which an individual have knowledge or specific skills that can influence others without rely heavily on surveillance as control (French & Raven in Warren, 1969). As for referent power, it’s defined as based on individual personal traits, behaviour, beliefs, perceptions and desirable resources (French & Raven in Warren, 1969). As for Weber (1954) defined power as the possibility of imposing one’s will upon the behaviour of others (Weber in Ritzer, 1996). According to Dahl (1957), suggested that power are the ability to get others to do something they would not otherwise to (Dahl, 1975). In Steven Lukes 3 – Dimensions of Power (1954), he ranged power as clearly visible (overt) and self-evident to an observer, through to power being elusive less visible (covert) and even on to institutionalized (Buchanan & Huczynski, 2010). In the central tension of an organization, when viewed through power lens, is between resistance and obedience (Courpasson in Clegg, Kornberger & Pitsis, 2011). The usage of invisible power or soft power will actually prevent resistance and backfire from happening in organizations. Post-bureaucracy is based on trust, empowerment, and personal treatment and shared responsibility. According to Charles Heckscher (1994) has devised a list of characteristic he calls the post-bureaucratic ideal type which is rules are replaced with consensus. Furthermore, people are trusted to act as the basis of shared value and emphasis on organizational mission (Hecksher in Hodgson, 2004). In post bureaucratic organisation, individuals do not feel tied down by general and role specific rules defining proper conduct. The feel empowered to act instinctively by a shared sense of belonging in the organisation (Adler in Maravelias, 2003). Therefore, employees tend to be committed when legitimacy comes into the topic as they already know what is expected from them, there is no need to exercise over power (Clegg, Kornberger & Pitsis, 2011). Somehow, post-bureaucracy generates its own problem. First of them is control, without rules, control cannot be exercised, especially in large organisations as it rely on self control rather than external monitoring, As risk might be high as employees are given more freedom to innovate and to do away with rules, this might lead to decisions that go wrong. The third main problem will be post-bureaucracy stresses individual treatments as this might lead to irrationalities and prejudices and bring greater stress for employees (Knights and Willmott, 2007). The concept of empowerment is related to terms such as autonomy, agency, self-direction, self-determination, participation, liberation, mobilization and self-confidence or in another word is employee are allowed to act behalf of what they value and have reason to value (Ibrahim and Alkire, 2007). Empowerment can also be defined as the broad...
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