Evaluation and supervision are the core processes in determining standards and maintaining quality in education. The assumption is they enhance teacher’s performance and boost the learners’ achievements. Evaluation is a function of policy while supervision administrative tools. This paper is focussing on the definitions, types, purposes, roles, differences and similarities of these two key processes. It will also look at why the two are necessary in any education system and what problems are associated with each of them. Evaluation Defined
Chivore (1994:2) defines evaluation as a “rational enterprise which examines the effects of policies, projects and programmes on their targets- individuals, institutions, communities”. A systematic and objective method is used to check if goals set have been met. It examines the extent and factors associated with success or failure. The fact and finding are then used to assist the decision makers in the future course of action. It is therefore done to improve the system or programme. Kurira (2012) defines evaluation as a continuous ongoing process. It is both informal and formal.’ The formal is done using set criteria while an informal in more intuitive during the curriculum development. Evaluation determines the successes and failures and suggests improvements. Dr Nyagah establishes that evaluation “is a process of establishing the extent to which the objectives of a programme have been achieved. It can also be defined as an objective process for determining the performance of a programme. It is a judgemental process aimed at decision making.” While Doll (1992) says it is a broad and continuous effort to inquire into the effects of utilizing educational content and process to meet clearly defined goals. Shiundu and Omulando (1992:185) “evaluation is a process of collecting and provision of data for the sake of facilitating decision making at various stages of curriculum development. It is a process of collecting data in a systematic manner for the purpose of assessing quality, effectiveness and worth of a programme. Dr Nyagah in Curriculum Studies Module describes evaluation as a process of establishing the extent to which the objectives of a programme have been achieved. It is “an objective process for determining the performance of a programme.” Thus, evaluation is a judgmental process, aimed at decision – making. Gatawa (1990:50) defines concurs that it is the process of describing and judging an educational programme or subject, comparing students’ performances with the set objectives, and is a decision making tool for revision and improvement. He classifies the definition into three: • The process of describing and judging an educational programme or subject. • The process of comparing a student’s performance with behaviorally stated objectives. • The process of defining, obtaining and using relevant information for decision-making purposes. He indicates that teacher tend to do these after every lesson or on a weekly basis. Urebvu (1985) postulates that it informs decision makers enable teachers to evaluate themselves, tool for correcting deficiencies, make improvements and establish new priorities. It allows for innovation, development, renewal, and improvement of the curriculum Supervision defined
However, supervision, according to Chivore (1995:38) involves the assessment of proper implementation of policy, correction of identified weaknesses, direction and redirection of defects for the attainment of stated aims, objectives and goals of an education system at a given level. He argues that it is an administrative tool and a process of monitoring educational standards which school heads cannot function effectively without. Chivore (1994) furthers explains that supervision “is a part of administration”. He encourages the Headmasters together with the senior teachers to supervise teachers frequently. While there may be a number of constraints quality and quantity of supervision...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document