Communication Models

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SUMMARY OF COMMUNICATION MODELS
(1)Transmission model
Laswell:
who
say what
to whom
in which channel
what effect

(2)Shannon and weaver
source→transmiitter→reciever→destination

Interactive model

(1)Schrammn model
encoder decoder
interpreter interpreter
decoder encoder

Inferential delayed feedback

COMMUNICATION  MODELS 
 
 COMMUNICATION  PROCESS
   
The communication process is the inter-relationship between several inter-dependent components.  
It consists  of a whole series of related actions  and reactions which together result in  the sharing of meaning.   

COMMUNICATION  PROCESS 
Sender 
Encoding 
Channel 
Receiver 
Decoding 
Feedback 
 (Message)

Elements of Communication  Process 

Sender  – It  is the person who intends to make contact with the objective of passing the message to other persons.

 Message – This is the subject matter of the communication, which is intended to be passed to the receiver from the sender.

 Encoding – The process of converting the message into communication symbols.

Channel  – Message encoded  into symbols are transmitted by the sender through a channel.  
Receiver – The person or group to whom the message is directed.  
Decoding – The receiver translates the words and symbols used in the message into idea and interprets it to obtain its meaning.  
Feedback  – It is the way of judging the effectiveness of the message. MODELS  OF COMMUNICATION 
 
 
3 Models of  Communication 
*  Gerbner Model/Transaction Model
* Shannon-Weaver Model/ Transmission Model
* Berlo’s Model/ Interactive Model
Transaction  Model Process (Contract, Operation)
 Sender 
Message 
Encoding 
Channel 
Receiver 
Decoding 
Message 
Feedback

This model consisted  of 7 elements: 
Sender
Message
Encoding
Channel
Receiver
Decoding
Feedback

TRANSMISSION MODEL
(1)Laswell model:
who
say what
to whom
in which channel
what effect
(2)Shannon-Weaver Model
source→transmiitter→reciever→destination
  This model of communication was developed by Shannon and Weaver (1949)    This model consisted of five elements:  
An information source - which produces a message.
A transmitter - which encodes the message into signals.
A channel - to which signals are adapted for transmission
A receiver - which 'decodes' (reconstructs) the message from the signal. A destination - where the message arrives.
 Noise - any interference with the message traveling along the channel which may lead to the signal received being different from that sent.    
(INTERACTIVE MODEL)

(1)Berlo model
Berlo’s model of communication was developed by David Berlo (1960)  This model consisted of four elements: 
Source 
Message
Channel
Receiver

(2)Schrammn model
encoder decoder
interpreter interpreter
decoder encoder

Inferential delayed feedback

(3) Osgood Model
encoder → message decoder interpreter interpreter decoder message ← encoder

History of models of communication
1950s: Early models

Mass communication research was always traditionally concerned with political influence over the mass press, and then over the influences of films and radio. The 1950s was fertile for model-building, accompanying the rise in sociology and psychology. It was in the USA that a science of communication was first discussed.

The earliest model was a simple sender-channel-message-receiver model.(SMCR)
Modifications added the concept of feedback, leading to a loop.

The next development was that receivers normally selectively perceive, interpret and retain...
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