John D. Allmon
March 3, 2013
Media in the 20th Century
I. To fully understand mass media, we need to come to grips with the enormous role that mass media has played in shaping that culture over the past one hundred years. With the development and evolution of mass media, there have been tremendous advantages and disadvantages that have contributed to major changes in society throughout the 20th century. However, these changes not only affect society but it has also affected the way business is done today. With the dawn of media convergence, globalization of media, audience dependency, concentration of ownership, and issue of media literacy; all the parties in the mass communication process are forced to think dramatically about their positions in it. Mass media can affect knowledge, attitudes, opinions and behavior of individuals. These effects can be immediate or delayed, for a short duration or long-lasting.
II. With the development and evolution of media, we find that media convergence and media dependency have become a major factor in how society is affected and the way we respond throughout our everyday life. Encyclopedia Britannica (2013) states that, “Media convergence, a phenomenon involving the interlocking of computing, and technology information companies, telecommunications networks, and content providers from the publishing worlds of newspapers, magazines, music, radio, television, films, and entertainment software. Media convergence brings together the “three Cs”—computing, communications, and content.” There are two levels of convergence, technologies which use broadband or wireless network delivery for industry-standard digital forms that they will display on various computer or computer-like devices such as laptops, cell phones, or tablets, and then there are industries, these companies across the business spectrum that will use anything from media to telecommunications to technology to merge or form business alliances to profit from the growing consumer expectation for “on-demand” content and use. . (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2013) Theory for media dependency is outlined by Sandra Ball-Rokeach and Melvin DeFleur (1976), they State that:
“This theory predicts that you depend on media information to meet certain needs and achieve certain goals, like uses-and-gratifications theory. But you do not depend on all media equally. Two factors influence the degree of media dependence. First, you will become more dependent on media that meet a number of your needs than on media that provide just a few. The second source of dependency is social stability. At such times your reliance on the media for information will increase. At other, more stable times your dependency on media may go way down.
In other words, individuals’ needs, motives, and uses of media are contingent on outside factors that may not be in the individuals’ control.” With this being said, we find that society or the human race is not only those affected by media convergence and dependency. The industries along with business have come to depend on the media to strive and grow; even more so since technology and media have developed and evolved over the years. With the development and evolution of media society has grown to become more dependent on media than in the past.
III. There are so many advantages and disadvantages to the media system that one tends to overpower the other. We find that media literacy gives the ability to ACCESS, ANALYZE, EVALUATE, and COMMUNICATE information in a variety of forms, including non-print and printed messages. NAMLE (2013) Media literacy empowers us to think and react with the ability to use media for the evolution of our creative and critical thinking through the use of modern technology and media. However, with the rise in media consumption, doubling every...