Comparing Models of Learning from Instructional Design
* cognition is a group of mental processes that includes attention, memory, producing and understanding language, learning, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making * stressed on more complex cognitive processes such as thinking, problem solving, language, concept formation and information processing
1. How does learning occur?
a. Learning is equated with discrete changes between states of knowledge rather than with changes in the probability response. b. Learning is concerned not so much with what learners do but what they know and how they come to acquire it. c. The learner is viewed as a very active participant in the learning process.
2. Which factors influence learning?
d. Cognitive theories contend that environmental cues and instructional components (instructional explanations, demonstrations, illustrative examples) alone cannot account for all the learning that results from an instructional situation. Additional key elements include the way that learners attend to code, transform, rehearse, store and retrieve information. e. Learner’s thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, and values are also considered to be influential in the learning process.
3. What is the role of the memory?
f. Memory is given a prominent role in the learning process. g. Learning results when information is stored in memory in an organized, meaningful manner. h. Forgetting is the inability to retrieve information from memory because of interference, memory loss, or missing/inadequate cues needed to access information.
4. How does transfer occur?
i. Transfer is a function of how information is stored in the memory (Schunk 1991). j. When a learner understands how to apply knowledge in different contexts, then transfer has occurred. k. Understanding is seen as being composed of a knowledge-base...
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