In 1941 Miller and Dollard proposed the theory of social learning. In 1963 Bandura and Walters broadened the social learning theory with the principles of observational learning and vicarious reinforcement. Bandura provided his concept of self-efficacy in 1977, while he refuted the traditional learning theory for understanding learning.
The Social Cognitive Theory is a theory that deals with cognitive, emotional aspects and aspects of behavior for understanding behavioral change. It is a belief that people learn there behaviors from others. According to the social-cognitive theory would suggest that individual with low self esteem can change their personality by applying the things they take in after observing other peoples behaviors whether they had low self esteem or not. Low self-esteem is having a generally negative overall opinion of oneself, judging or evaluating oneself negatively, and placing a general negative value on oneself as a person. . This is then incorporated in the learning theories such that the role model from whom the individual learns from plays a vital role in enhancing changes in self-esteem. The Theoretical Model of Behavior Change assesses an individual's readiness to act on a new healthier behavior, and provides strategies, or processes of change to guide the individual through the stages of change to Action and Maintenance. The theoretical model can be use in individual with low self-esteem being exposed to situation to develop better traits to make their self-esteem higher and that friends can assist the individuals at a personal level (McAlister, 2008).
McAlister AL, Perry CL, and Parcel GS. (2008), How Individuals, Environments, and Health Behaviors Interact: Social Cognitive Theory. In: Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice 4th Edition. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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