Cognitive Studies as the Direction of Modern Linguistics

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COGNITIVE STUDIES AS THE DIRECTION OF MODERN LINGUISTICS

At the end of the 20th century linguistics applied to anthropocentric paradigm of knowledge including among other things presentation about the human factor in the language [4, 2001:15]. The cognitive linguistics is the study of how the person operates the symbols, while coming to understanding the world and themselves in the world, the subject matter of which is the human mind, the thinking and the mental processes and conditions [11, 2005: 8]. The processes associated with knowledge and information are called cognitive ones. Their synonyms are also words «intellectual», «mental», «and rational». Cognitive aspect is the basic concept of cognitive linguistics. It is obvious that in the complex of human sciences the relations between language and other human activities are closely interwoven with each other. Languages give cognitive scientists the key to understand human behavior even in the greater degree, than the culture and society [6, 1997:21]. In the 70-80th of the last century mainly lexico-grammatical and thematic groups of words were studied for identifying general and specific characteristics in a lexical system of language. Today the cognitive research is aimed at expansion of the Humanities [2, 2005: 28]. It is the question of great importance for scientists to find out the very existence of the words in the mental lexicon of individuals. Scientists consider the word to be a unit of knowledge, phenomenon or process meant by it, and also the knowledge of unit position in the system of language, where it is associated with other units of the same system [6, 1997: 306-307]. There are many definitions of concepts, as the term «concept» is currently one of the most popular in a Russian science. It is not only about linguistics, the concept is used in perceptual and cognitive psychology, and lingvo-cultural science, sociology, and many other sciences. The concept is a multifaceted term,...
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