This essay will look at the physical and psychological needs of a three year old child. I will discuss the underlying principles and how these principles effects the way child care professionals in the UK work with children to promote their development in these areas. I will focus on how the environment has a major influence on a child’s physical, social and emotional development and how a parent/carer’s sensitive intervention can have a positive effect on the child’s well-being and self-esteem.
The physical and psychological needs of a three year old include having basic needs met such needs should include food, warmth, shelter and emotional security so the child can reach his/her full potential. The child also needs to feel a sense of belonging, needs to develop a positive self-esteem and self-image, and feel they are accepted as an individual with individual needs. In 1989 world leaders came to a decision that children needed their own convention, this was because they felt children needed ‘special care’ and ‘protection’ that adults did not (http:www.unicef.org/crc/index_30160.htm, 2011l).This created The United Nations Convention on the Rights of a Child (1989 and 1990). This legislation had a major influence on ensuring children had the rights to many important factors of their needs and development. The Articles that play the most importance to a child’s physical and psychological needs are those that focus on the right to protection (Articles 4 and 19), the right to survival (Articles 6 and 24) and lastly the right to participation (Article 15) (http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/crc.htm, 1996 - 2007).
Maslow talks about these needs as being ‘Vitamins’ stating that ‘we could never be healthy without them’. A child who does not have these needs met in Maslow’s eyes would be ‘aggressive or attention seeking’, this child could only be ‘cured’ by reinforcing there need for belonging and self-esteem .He believed that a child’s main need was the psychological need leading them to the need of feeling safe, the need to belong and be loved, the need to feel or have self-esteem and then finally bringing them to ‘Self Actualise’ their needs (http://www.teacherstoolbox.co.uk/T_maslow.htm, 2011l).
A three year old child has many physical needs some which s/he will be able to do independently and some s/he will need support from an adult with. These include understanding the effect of exercise; rest and diet on his/her own body and also how to keep healthy and safe. Throughout the UK...