Violation of Child Rights
First of all, if we want to talk about violation of child rights we have to define child rights, what they are, and to whom they are intended.”A child is any human being below the age of eighteen years, unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier." , World leaders in 1989 decided that children needed a special convention, because children often need special care and protection that adults do not. The leaders also wanted to make sure that people under 18 year old have human rights too. UN Convention on the Rights of the Child was adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989 and entry into force on September 2nd 1990. The Convention spells out the basic human rights that children everywhere have: the right to survival; to develop to the fullest; to protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation; and to participate fully in family, cultural and social life. The four foundation principles of the Convention are non-discrimination; devotion to the best interests of the child; the right to life, survival and development; and respect for the views of the child. Every right spelled out in the Convention is inherent to the human dignity and harmonious development of every child. The Convention protects children's rights by setting standards in health care; education; and legal, civil and social services. By agreeing to undertake the obligations of the Convention, national governments have committed themselves to protecting and ensuring children's rights and they have agreed to hold themselves accountable for this commitment before the international community. States parties to the Convention are obliged to develop and undertake all actions and policies in the light of the best interests of the child. All children have the right to be protected from violence, exploitation and abuse. Yet, millions of children worldwide from all socio-economic backgrounds, across all ages, religions and cultures suffer violence, exploitation and abuse every day. Some girls and boys are particularly vulnerable because of gender, race, ethnic origin or socio-economic status. Higher levels of vulnerability are often associated with children with disabilities, who are orphaned, indigenous, from ethnic minorities and other marginalized groups. Other risks for children are associated with living and working on the streets, living in institutions and detention, and living in communities where inequality, unemployment and poverty are highly concentrated. Natural disasters, armed conflict, and displacement may expose children to additional risks. Vulnerability is also associated with age; younger children are at greater risk of certain types of violence and the risks differ as they get older. Violence, exploitation and abuse are often practiced by someone known to the child, including parents, other family members, caretakers, teachers, employers, law enforcement authorities, state and non-state actors and other children. Only a small proportion of acts of violence, exploitation and abuse are reported and investigated, and few perpetrators are held accountable. Many children are exposed to various forms of violence; but I will pay attention to a few of them: sexual violence, armed violence, child trafficking, and child marriage. Sexual violence against children
Sexual violence against children is a gross violation of children’s rights. But it is a global reality across all countries and social groups. It takes the form of sexual abuse, harassment, rape or sexual exploitation in prostitution or pornography. It can happen everywhere, in homes, institutions, schools, workplaces. Also the internet and mobile phones put children at risk of sexual violence as some adults look to the internet to pursue sexual relationships with children. There is an increase in the number and circulation of images of child...
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