Chapter 4 Test of Grammar and Usage

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Most common types of objective tests
1. Multiple choice items
2. error – recognition
3. rearrangement items
4. completion items
5. transformation items
6. items involving the changing of words
7. ‘ broken sentence’ items
8. pairing and matching items
9. combination items
10. additional items
The goal: testing ability to recognize and produce the correct forms of language ( rather than the ability to use L in actual and purposeful tasks of communication)

I. Multiple-choice
a/ Item types
Type 1 = an incomplete sentence + a choice of 4 or 5 options • Ways to present the options
a. Tom ought not to ……….. (A. tell, B. having told, C. be telling, D have told) me the secret, but he did. → confuses the reader with the long parenthesis
b. Tom ought not to ……….. me the secret , but he did A. tell B. having toldC. be tellingD. have told
→ preferable ( not to interrupt the flow of meaning)
c. Tom ought not to have told me the secret , but he did
A. No change
B. tell
C. having told
D. be telling
→ waste time to construct part in the sentence
d. Tom ought not to tell me the secret but he did
Tom ought not to telling me the secret but he did
Tom ought not to having told me the secret but he did
Tom ought not to have told me the secret but he did
→ not recommended ( require to spend time on unnecessary reading ) Type 2 = testing short answers or responses
Tom ought not to have told anyone the secret
A. So ought youB. Neither you oughtn’t
C. Neither ought youD. So oughtn’t you
Type 3 = asking sts to select the alternatives which is true according to the information conveyed in the stem ( requiring the understanding syntactical patterns)
Tom ought not to have told me
A. Tom did not tell me but he should
B. Perhaps Tom may not tell me
C. Tom told me but it was wrong of him
D. It was necessary for Tom not to tell me
b/ Procedure
1. choose the grammatical points that you need to test
2. prepare the right kind of context for the Grammar structure
3. select logical distractors
4. prepare clear, simple introduction
c/ Notes
1. Distractors = correct both in writing and speech
2 .Items ( alternatives) = should be in a part of a para.→ fairly authentic context
(- ) limit the range of GR. Features being tested
(+) avoid ambiguity and alternative interpretation
(+) give sts the real feel for the L they are learning ( by testing real L used For particular purpose)
d/ Constructing
1. Source : Can take advantages of the errors made by sts in their free composition or open- ended answers to the questions
(- ) authentic
( +) cannot be benefit to many other sts
2. Steps
II. Error Recognition items
a/ Types : 3
1. Each sentence contain 4 words or phrases underlined, mark A, B, C, D . Sts select the underlined word or phrase which is incorrect or unacceptable 2. there is a mistake in Gr in each of sentence. Write the letter of the part of

the sentence in which it occurs → many acceptable answers ↔ avoid to use
3. give correct and incorrect sentences together . Sts write E for correct sentence→ not work well
b/ Note
(- ) sts are required to expose too much to incorrect forms (+) related to some real life tasks: edict, proof reading report, article, essay..

III. Rearrangement items
Test for 1. direct/ indirect word order
2 structures and features involving inversion
3. the order of adjective, position of adverbs
Forms : 1. putting the words/ constituent parts in the correct order
2. putting the letters of the various sentence in their correct order IV. Completion items
To Test for sts’ ability to produce acceptable and appropriate forms of the L.
Be preferable to Multiple- choice because they measure production > recognition
1. Insert the most appropriate words ( grammatical /...
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