Test 1 Vocab

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Chapter 1

Anthropology- the study of humankind in all times and places

Holistic perspective- a fundamental principle of anthropology: that the various parts of human culture and biology must be viewed in the broadest Possible context in order to understand their interconnections and interdependence

Ethnocentrism- the belief the ways of one’s own culture are the only proper ones

Culture bound- looking at the world and reality based on the assumptions and values of one’s own culture

Applied anthropology- the use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems, often for a specific client

Medical anthropology- a specialization in anthropology that combines theoretical and applied approaches from cultural and biological Anthropology with the study of human health and disease
Physical anthropology- the systematic study of humans as biological organisms; also known as biological anthropology

Molecular anthropology- a branch of biological anthropology that uses genetic and biochemical techniques to test hypotheses about human evolution, adaption, and variation

Paleoanthropology- the study of the origins and predecessors of the present human species, the study of human evolution

Biocultural- focusing on the interaction of biology and culture

Primatology- the study of living and fossil primates

Forensic anthropology- applied subfield of physical anthropology that specializes in the identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes

Cultural anthropology- also known as social or sociocultural anthropology. The study of customary patterns in human behavior, thought, and feelings. It focuses on humans as culture producing and culture-reproducing creatures

Culture- a society’s shared and socially transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions, which are used to make sense of experience and generate behavior

Ethnography- a detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork Fieldwork- the term anthropologists use for on-location research Participant observation- in ethnography, the technique of learning a people’s culture through social participation and personal observation within the community being studied, as well as interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over an extended period of time Ethnology- the study and analysis of different cultures from a comparative or historical point of view, utilizing ethnographic accounts and developing anthropological theories that help explain why certain important differences or similarities occur among groups Linguistic anthropology- the study of human languages—looking at their structure, history, and relation to social and cultural contexts Discourse- an extended communication on a particular subject Archaeology- the study of human cultures through the recovery and analysis of material remains and environmental data Bio archaeology- the archaeological study of human remains, emphasizing the preservation of cultural and social processes in the skeleton Cultural resource management- a branch of archaeology tied to government policies for the protection of cultural resources and involving surveying and/or excavating archaeological and historical remains threatened by construction or development Empirical- based on observations of the world rather than on intuition or faith Hypothesis- a tentative explanation of the relationships between certain phenomena Theory- in science, an explanation of natural phenomena, supported by a reliable body of data Doctrine- an assertion of opinion or belief formally handed down by an authority as true and indisputable Informed consent- formal recorded agreement to participate in research, federally mandated for all research in the United States and Europe Globalization- worldwide interconnectedness, evidenced in global movements of natural resources, trade goods, human labor, finance capital, information, and infectious diseases Chapter 5...
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