American International University- Bangladesh
School of Business
Chapter 14 Foundations of Behavior
WHY LOOK AT INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR?
1. Organizational behavior is primarily concerned with group interactions. 2. The goals of organizational behavior are to predict and explain behavior. ATTITUDES
3. Attitudes are evaluative statements concerning objects, people, or events. 4. When an employee says, “I make less money at this company than I could earn at another company,” he or she is reflecting the cognitive component of an attitude. 5. The behavioral component of an attitude is made up of the beliefs, opinions, knowledge, or information held by a person.
6. The term attitude usually refers to the affective component. 7. The satisfaction-performance correlations are strongest for higher-level employees. JOB INVOLVEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT
8. Job involvement is the degree to which an employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her job performance to be important to his or her self-worth. 9. Being happy at work results in employees being productive workers. COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY
10. Cognitive dissonance theory seeks to explain the correlated relationship between the affective, cognitive, and behavioral components of attitudes.
11. According to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a person who rates strongly as a “perceptive” would likely be spontaneous.
12. The MBTI lacks evidence to support its validity.
Prepared By Ayan Ahmed
THE BIG FIVE MODEL
13. In the big-five model, emotional security was positively related to job performance. 14. The big-five model found that calm and secure workers performed better than nervous ones. PERSONALITY TYPES IN DIFFERENT CULTURES
15. People from Middle Eastern countries believe they can dominate their environment. 16. U.S. workers, more than Iranian workers, would likely have an external locus of control. ADDITIONAL PERSONALITY INSIGHTS
17. Employees with high self-esteem tend to be more satisfied with their jobs than low SEs. 18. People who believe that if they work hard, they will be successful would be described as having an internal locus of control.
19. A person who rates as being high in Machiavellianism would accomplish a task regardless of what it takes.
20. A low, self-monitoring employee would not adjust well to self-sent signals, but would respond well to signals in his or her external environment.
21. According to Holland’s Typology, enterprising types tend to be self-confident, ambitious, energetic, and domineering.
IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGERS
22. According to Holland’s Typology, a realistic personality type might be well-suited to be an economist. 23. According to Holland’s Vocational Preference Inventory, farming is considered a conventional job type.
24. Perception is a process by which individuals give meaning to their environment by organizing and interpreting their sensory impressions.
25. Attribution is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
26. Distinctiveness refers to whether an individual displays a behavior in many situations or whether it’s particular to one situation.
27. In stereotyping, the observer’s perception of others is influenced by the observer’s own characteristics rather than by those of the person observed.
Prepared By Ayan Ahmed
28. Your human resource director believes that married employees are more stable than single persons are. This is an example of the halo assumed similarity.
29. If a manager thinks that all attractive employees are also productive employees, the manager is committing an error based on a halo effect.
LEARNING – OPERANT CONDITIONING
30. Operant conditioning argues that behavior is a function of its consequences.
For each of the...