Chapter 13: How Cells Obtain Energy From Food
The energy released by oxidizing glucose is saved in high energy bonds of: ATP and other activated carrier molecues 2.
Sugars derived from food are broken down by: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation 3.
Catabolism: a breakdown process in which enzymes degrade complex molecules into simpler ones 4.
The digestion of polymeric food molecules into monomeric subunits occurs in: extracellular space (i.g. lumen of the intestines) and in lysosomes 5.
The oxidative breakdown of food molecules occur in the MITOCHONDRIA in eukaryotic cells 6.
The electron transport chain generates the largest amount of ATP 7.
The end products of glycolysis are: pyruvate, ATP, and NADH
NAD+, ATP, and ADP are required for glycolysis to occur, O2 is NOT 9.
The synthesis of ATP in glycolysis occurs by substrate level phosphorylation 10.
2 ATP are invested during the first part of glycolysis for each molecule of glucose broken down 11.
From one glucose molecule, 2 ATP and 2 NADH is produced during glycolysis 12.
Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway responsible for the principle source of ATP in anaerobic microorganisms 13.
Under anaerobic conditions Fermentation is the metabolic pathway that regenerates the supplu of NAD+ for glycolysis 14.
For a bond to be “high energy” such as between phosphate groups in ATP, The hydrolysis of such a bond is particularly energetically favorable 15.
Sugars, fats and amino acids can be converted to Acetyl CoA in the mitochondria 16.
When fatty acids are oxidized to Acetyl CoA, each cycle of the reaction removes 2 carbon atoms from fatty acid molecules 17.
Although the citric acid cycle itself does not require O2, it requires a functioning electron transport chain (which uses O2) in order to regenerate NAD+ for further use in the citric acid cycle 18.
The citric acid cycle converts the carbon atoms in Acetyl CoA to CO2 19.
Intermediates formed in glycolysis...
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