Change Management

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1.1 INTRODUCTION:

What is change?
A systematic approach to dealing with change, both from the perspective of an organization and on the individual level proactively addressing adapting to change, controlling change, and effecting change. -Case Western Reserve University. “Change" is:

* to give a different position, course, or direction.
* to make a shift from one to another.
* to undergo a modification.
* to undergo transformation, transition or substitution.

“Manage" is :
* to handle or direct with a degree of skill or address.
* to exercise executive, administrative and supervisory direction.

REASONS FOR CHANGE:
Internal forces for change| External forces for change|
A general sense that the business could “do better”.
Desire to increase profitability.
Reorganizations to increase efficiency.
Natural ageing and decline in a business (e.g. machinery, products). Conflict between departments.
The need for greater flexibility in organizational structures. Concerns about ineffective communication, de-motivation or poor business relationships.| Increased demands for higher quality and levels of customer service. Uncertain economic conditions.

Greater competition .
Higher cost of inputs.
Legislation & taxes.
Political interests.
Ethics & social values.
Technological  change.
Globalizations.
Changing nature and composition of the workforce.|
FIGURE. 1.1 showing the reasons for change:

CHANGE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES:

(1) Defining and instilling new values, attitudes, norms, and behaviors within an rganization that support new ways of doing work and overcome resistance to change. (2) Building consensus among customers and stakeholders on specific changes designed to better meet their needs and (3) planning, testing, and implementing all aspects of the transition from one organizational structure or business process to another.
Figure1.1 showing the process of change.

CONCEPT OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT:
The systematic approach and application of knowledge, tools and resources to deal with change. Change management means defining and adopting corporate strategies, structures, procedures and technologies to deal with changes in external conditions and the business environment. .

Figure 1.2 shows the flowchart of change process

PHASES OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT:
The change management process is the sequence of steps or activities that a change management team or project leader would follow to apply change management to a project or change. Based on Prosci's research of the most effective and commonly applied change, most change management processes contain the following three phases: Phase 1 - Preparing for change (Preparation, assessment and strategy development) Phase 2 - Managing change (Detailed planning and change management implementation) Phase 3 - Reinforcing change (Data gathering, corrective action and recognition)

Figure1.3 showing the differnt phases and output of change management

CHANGE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES ON INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT:
* Change Management on Individuals is based on understanding and helping the individuals to deal with the emotional,rational,organizational and political aspects of change. Figure1.4 showing the individual change

Individual barriers to change:
* Tradition and set ways:
* Loyalty to existing relationships
* Failure to accept the need for change
* Insecurity
* Different person ambitions
* Fear of:
* Loss of power , income, skills.
* The unknown.
* Structural inertia.
* Existing power structures.
* Resistance from work groups.
* Failure of previous change initiatives.

CHANGE MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES IN PROJECT DEVELOPMENT:
Once the change management objectives...
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