Word count: 994, excluding quotes, references and phonemic script.
She used to drive to work.
A. Used to describes an action/s that happened in the past and has since stopped. It can also be applied to things that were true but no longer are, for example 'there used to be a regular bus service'.
B. Draw a character on the board, elicit from ss a name, gender, where they live, where they go for fun and how they get to work (making sure include a car), draw simple pictures of these things below the character, the more creative ss get the better. Now to the right of these pictures draw the same character but behind bars, elicit that they are in jail now (sad face on character). Elicit that they no longer do the things or live where they were. Make it clear that the character no longer does these things because they’re in prison now, use this context to elicit a used to sentence from the class. Model the structure with (he/she) used to drive to work.
C. Clarify past aspect through the use of a time-line running above the pictures from when the character had/did the things they liked over to the picture of them in prison (now written about the prison part of the timeline). an x marks when the character was caught by police (could elicit from ss what for). Write-up 'character name used to drive his/her car to work' on the board. Concept checking questions could include – 'Do they still drive to work?' 'Did s/he drive to work in the past?'.
D. S/he – subject pronoun, used to – modal verb, to drive – infinitive, to work – infinitive
F. 'Ss may confuse used to with use as a main verb.'(Scrivener, 2010: 262) .With negative 'didn't use to' ss may add an additional d' (Scrivener, 2010: 262) making it 'she didn't used to'. ss may not grasp that the positive 'used to' is used for referring to events that have stopped, e.g. 'I used to smoke when I was young' and they still do.
I had my car repaired yesterday.
A. The speaker has caused their car to be repaired by someone else yesterday. 'we use have something done to say that we arrange for somebody else to do something for us' (Murphy, 2004: 92)
B. I bought a car on ebay, the auction looked too good to be true, and it was! It didn't work! I am a very busy English teacher and I just don't have time to repair the car. I took it to the mechanic yesterday. Then say 'I drove to work today in my car' show them a picture of the car looking better. Use this as context for eliciting or modeling 'I had my car repaired yesterday'.
C. Concept checking questions could include, 'did I fix the car myself?' (no), 'who fixed the car?' (the mechanic) and 'did I pay the mechanic for fixing the car?' (probably).
D. I – subject pronoun, had – auxiliary verb in past form, my – possessive pronoun, car – noun/object, repaired – past participle, yesterday – adverb of time.
F. ss may not recognise it as different from other had+object+past participle forms that don't necessitate causal action, for example 'I had my gym membership withdrawn when I stopped paying them' adapted from Scrivener (2010: 249).
Compare Remember to post the letter. To I remember posting the letter.
A. The first is a request to remember something in the future (synonymous with don't forget to post the letter), the second is a statement of remembering something from the past. “infinitives to look forward, +ing to look at the past/present” (Parrott, 2000: 178)
B. Tell a story using mime to emphesise the time difference for ss. As I left the house to go to the cinema my mum handed me a letter it has her dad's birthday card in it, it's his birthday very soon. Use this context to elicit or model 'remember to post the letter'. Continue the story by drawing a picture of the letter being posted. Two days later my mum had a phone call from her dad, the letter never arrived! She...