Categories of a Promotional Mix

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Promotion mix is the combination of advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal selling and direct marketing tools that a company uses to communicate value and build relationships (Kotler & Armstrong, 2008). A balanced mix of these aspects is needed to build and maintain profitable customer relationships. Advertising is, “and paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor” (Kotler & Armstrong, 2008). For example advertising includes mass media, TV ads, radio spots etc. Kotler and Armstrong define sales promotion as, “short term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service” (2008). Sales promotions could include things like special sales or coupons. Public relations or publicity, as defined by Kotler and Armstrong is “Building good relations with the company’s various publics by obtaining favorable publicity, building up good corporate image, and handling or heading off unfavorable rumors, stories and events” (2008). Personal selling is ”personal presentation by the firm’s sales force for the purpose of making sales and building customer relationships” (Kotler & Armstrong, 2008). Basically personal selling is personal contact with a consumer; an easy example of this would be sales telemarketing. Direct marketing is targeted toward individual consumers to obtain an immediate response to the company’s efforts and to build lasting relationships (Kotler & Armstrong, 2008). Direct marketing can be by internet, mailings, phone calls or in person, but is usually directed towards a specific person. The promotion mix is extremely important to marketing. Promotion is the way companies can communicate to the consumers. To build profitable customer relationships it is essential to understand and use the promotional mix.
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