For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, situated in Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam, having worlds largest population of 1,330,044,544 (July 2008 est.) and worlds second largest economy after USA.(CIA,2008).
Cultural, Legal & Political Issues in China
On 1 January 1912, the Republic of China(ROC) was established, after ending the Qing Dynasty. Sun Yat-sen of the Kuomintang (the KMT or Nationalist Party) was proclaimed provisional president of the republic. In 1915, Yuan Shikai former Qing general who was given precidency proclaimed himself Emperor of China but was forced to abdicate and return the state to a republic when he realized it was an unpopular move, not only with the population but also with his own created Beiyang Army and its commanders(infoplease,2008). The Sino-Japanese War of 1937–1945 which was supposed to be a part of second world war ended with Japan's surrender to the Western Allies in 1945 which touched off civil war between the Kuomintang forces under Chiang and Communists led by Mao Zedong, who had been battling since the 1930s for control of China. Despite U.S. aid, the Kuomintang were overcome by the Soviet-supported Communists, and Chiang and his followers were forced to flea the mainland, establishing a government-in-exile on the island of Formosa (Taiwan). The Mao regime proclaimed the People's Republic of China on Oct. 1, 1949, with Beijing as the new capital and Zhou Enlai as premier (infoplease,2008). Now this communist country is having one political party which is Chinese Communist Party or CCP lead by current president HU Jintao and there are eight other registered small parties controlled by CCP.(CIA,2008)
After independence on 1st Oct 1949, China legal system had been created based on civil law system; basically derived from another communist powered country Soviet Russia and continental civil code legal principles. (CIA, 2007) China is a communist state and consists of 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities. HU Jintao is the present president of China and the vice president is XI Jinping. Although the president is the chief of the state but the head of government is Prime Minister and the current Prime Minister is WEN Jiabao along with 4 other Vice Prime Minister. Under the cabinet, Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council of State and appointed by the National People's Congress (NPC). (CIA, 2007) Chinese legislative branch consists of unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui with 2987 seats and the members are elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and People's Liberation Army to serve five-year terms. Supreme People's Court is the most superior court of appeal and the National People’s Congress appoints the judges. After the Supreme People's Court there are Local People's Courts containing higher, intermediate, and basic courts and Special People's Courts containing military, maritime, railway transportation, and forestry courts.(CIA, 2007) Cultural Background
Ancient China was one of the earliest centers of human civilization. Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest humans in China date from 2.24 million to 250,000 years ago.And since then it’s been rich of it’s own culture and China is the one of the most cultral sensitive country in the world. Total areas covered by China are 9,596,960 sq km. Most of the Chinese are atheist. And the other main religions are Daoist (Taoist), Buddhist with few Christian(3%-4%) and Muslim (1%-2%).Hundreds of ethnic groups have existed in China throughout its history. The largest ethnic group in China by far is the Han( 91.5%) and others are like Zhuang, Manchu, Hui, Miao,...