DISTANCE CALCULATION
Because of the near-spherical shape of the Earth (technically an oblate spheroid) , calculating an accurate distance between two points requires the use of spherical geometry and trigonometric math functions. However, you can calculate an approximate distance using much simpler math functions. For many applications the approximate distance calculation provides sufficient accuracy with much less complexity.

The following approximate distance calculations are relatively simple, but can produce distance errors of 10 percent of more. These approximate calculations are performed using latitude and longitude values in degrees. The first approximation requires only simple math functions:

Approximate distance in miles:
sqrt(x * x + y * y)
where x = 69.1 * (lat2 - lat1)
and y = 53.0 * (lon2 - lon1)

You can improve the accuracy of this approximate distance calculation by adding the cosine math function Improved approximate distance in miles:
sqrt(x * x + y * y)
where x = 69.1 * (lat2 - lat1)
and y = 69.1 * (lon2 - lon1) * cos(lat1/57.3)

If you need greater accuracy, you can use the Great Circle Distance Formula. This formula requires use of spherical geometry and a high level of floating point mathematical accuracy - about 15 digits of accuracy (sometimes called "double-precision"). In order to use this formula properly make sure your software application or programming language is capable of double-precision floating point calculations. In addition, the trig math functions used in this formula require conversion of the latitude and longitude values from decimal degrees to radians. To convert latitude or longitude from decimal degrees to radians, divide the latitude and longitude values in this database by 180/pi, or approximately 57.29577951. The radius of the Earth is assumed to be 6,378.8 kilometers, or 3,963.0 miles.

If you convert all latitude and longitude values in the database to radians before the calculation, use...

...DistanceBetween 2 points in a Coordinate Plane
Short Description of Lesson: This is a lesson that introduces or reinforces how to find the distancebetween 2 points on a coordinate plane by using the absolute value between 2 points or using the distance formula.
Lesson Objectives: Students will learn how...

...Calculating the break-even point
To avoid making a loss every business must at least break-even by achieving a level of sales that covers its total costs. But what level of sales is necessary to break-even?
To explore the concept of break-even, we need to define some basic terms:
Fixed costs: Costs that do not vary with output or sales e.g. managers salaries, rent and rates on business premises.
Variable costs: Costs that vary with the quantity...

...
The DistanceBetween Us Essay
In the memoir, “The DistanceBetween Us,” by Reyna Grande, Reyna explains how her and her three siblings managed to grow up without any parents. Mago, Carlos, Reyna and their new sister, Betty, all live a rough life without any real type of love from their parents so they have to rely on each other for guidance and support. The four Grande children formed a special bond over the years that they will...

...The distancebetween psychological and social
The distancebetween psychological and social
Emily was often set apart from the town's people because they viewed her as a social icon. She was well respected in the town, because of her father’s wealth and the neighborhood she lives in. This was obvious in the text when it was stated, “Miss Emily had been a tradition, a duty and a care a sort of hereditary obligation upon the town.”...

..."Between Heaven and Earth"
Written by Alana Aston
"Between Heaven and Earth" features the dynamic physical theatre performer Stace Callaghan as she attends a "Boot Camp for the Soul". Recently performed at the Powerhouse, the show is a pilgrimage through time, space and soul as it traverses the crevasse between psychological breakdowns and spiritual breakthroughs. Callaghan has said that the show is an "offering of...

...Chapter 42 – Epilogue
Rennie
Rennie sat in the lobby with his coat waiting for his cousins to come pick him up. As he waited, he fiddled with the zipper of his coat looking back at his adventure in Iceland. He wondered to himself how he lived through such a cold environment. After waiting a while, I turn around to see my cousing D.J. looking at me.
“Rennie!” he cried scaring me out of my pants. “Yipes! You scared me!” I replied. I’ve never seen D.J. before, but he has a pretty similar...

...Voisin
Mrs. Johnston
English Composition (sec2)
26 March 2014
The DistanceBetween Us: A Memoir by Reyna Grande
The term “The American Dream” is very broad with many meanings and certainly broader than any single statistic can measure; however we all our own definition of that. Some would say it is building their dream house, going to college, being wealthy, or just having a family. While Reyna Grande’s memoir, The DistanceBetween...

...Surface Tension of Liquids
Karen Mae L. Fernan
Department of Chemistry, Xavier University-Ateneo de Cagayan, Philippines
Date performed: Nov. 22, 2012 ∙ Date Submitted: January 16, 2013
E-mail: fernankarenmae26@yahoo.com
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract
Surface tension is defined as the energy or work required to increase the...

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