❖ GENERAL INFORMATION
the "Land of Smiling Beauty", is a province of the Philippines in the Cagayan Valley region in Luzon. Its capital is Tuguegarao City and is located at the northeastern corner of the island of Luzon. Cagayan also includes the Babuyan Islands to the north. The province borders Ilocos Norte and Apayao to the west, and Kalinga and Isabela to the south. Cagayan province is distinct from the city in Mindanao named Cagayan de Oro, and is far away from Cagayancillo of Palawan or Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi Island in the Sulu Sea.
In 1581, Captain Juan Pablo Carreon came to Cagayan with one hundred fully equipped soldiers with their families by order of Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñaloza, the fourth Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines, to explore the Cagayan Valley and to force the conversion of the natives to Catholicism as well as to establish ecclesiastical missions and towns throughout the valley. This was the first batch of Spanish settlers in the Cagayan Valley who introduced Spanish culture and Latin civilization, subverting native culture, customs, and tradition.
On June 29, 1583, Juan de Salcedo traced the northern coastline of Luzon and set foot on the Massi (Pamplona), Tular, and Aparri areas. The Spanish friars soon established mission posts in Camalaniugan and Lal-lo(Nueva Segovia), which became the seat of the Diocese established by Pope Clement VIII on August 14, 1595. The Spanish influence can still be seen in the massive churches and other buildings that the Spaniards built for the spiritual and social welfare of the people.
Due to the influx of Ilokano migrants in the last century, majority of the people of Cagayan speak Iloko as their primary tongue. Aside from the Ilokanos, there are several smaller ethnic groups that live in the province. The Ibanags are the dominant ethnic group in the vicinity of the...