Breast Cancer

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I. Introduction
A. Description of the Disease
Normal cells grow, divide and die in an orderly fashion. In an adult, cells in most parts of the body divide only to replace worn-out cells and to repair injuries (Cuevas, 2007). However, these normal cells may be exposed to agents that cause their transformation to cancer cells. These agents are termed as “carcinogenic”. Another theory of how cancer develops states that the body itself produces abnormal cells. Normally, these abnormal cells are destroyed by immune system. In cases of immunologic deficiency, the immune system fails to destroy the abnormal cells which eventually become the cancer cells (Udan, 2002). According to Reyes & Layug (2009), breast cancer is an unregulated growth of abnormal cells in breast tissue. Its cause is unknown, but many risk factors influence the development. A woman who finds a breast lump or other breast problem will probably first suspect cancer, even though 8 of 10 lumps are benign. Despite many misconceptions regarding the etiology of breast cancer, public awareness about this health threat has grown dramatically. Now, breast cancer is openly discussed, and information about this topic is frequently presented in mass media.

Many women are anxious about their risk for breast cancer, and many tend to overestimate their risk. Even though genetic, hormonal, or biochemical factors are likely to be involved, 70 % of women with breast cancer have no known risk (Black & Hawks, 2006). This gives us an idea that we cannot tell who among us will have the neoplasm. The only intervention we can do is to detect early the cancer through regular breast self-examination (BSE), clinical examination and routine mammograms. B. Recent trends, Innovations, and or refinement in treatment. According to ScienceDaily.com (2012), early detection and advances in the treatment for breast cancer have improved the chances of survival, however new avenues for treatment are still needed in the battle against this disease. New research published in BioMed Central's open access journal Breast Cancer Research demonstrates that the protein “Perp”, associated with desmosomes (the glue that sticks cells together), is involved in suppressing breast cancer and provides a potential new target for future treatment. These results show that Perp is part of the cellular glue that fastens cells together and has a dual role in the prevention of breast cancer. Inflammatory cells promote cancer and lack of cell adhesion is part of the progression of cancer to metastasis. Perp may well be a new indicator for monitoring breast cancer or a future target for molecular treatment. On the other hand, diagnosis of breast cancer will be fortunately be innovated in the future as the researchers declare, “A simple blood test could one day be a more accurate way to test for the early signs of breast cancer than using mammograms to spot a lump.” They also hope the blood test could improve treatment by detecting whether breast cancer patients are likely to relapse and what drugs their particular type of tumour will respond to. This pioneering new clinical study -- funded by Cancer Research UK in collaboration with the University of Leicester and Imperial College London -- is about to start in the UK's largest breast screening clinic at Charing Cross Hospital, London. Researchers will take blood samples from women attending the breast screening clinic and compare the DNA in the blood of women who are diagnosed with breast cancer with those that do not have cancer to see what DNA markers are consistent. Dr. Jacqui Shaw, principal investigator from the University of Leicester, said: "This exciting research means we could one day have a blood test that detects the very early signs of cancer meaning women could have an annual blood test rather than breast screening. This would remove any worry and anxiety for women who are called for further investigations after a mammogram only to find...
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