Screening Mammography

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Screening Mammography Should not Be Practiced on Women Age 40-49 McCall C.
Utah Valley University
Course: Online English 2020
Instructor: Dr. Robert Crane

Abstract

Screening mammography is currently the most widely accepted system for diagnosing breast cancer in the United States. This report analyzes the effectiveness and safety of screening mammography, specifically in women age 40-49. Even though screening mammography is a popular procedure, there are many dangerous side effects including an increased risk of developing breast cancer due to radiation exposure, high number of inaccuracies, and over-diagnosis. This report concludes that the benefits of screening mammography do not outweigh the risks for women age 40-49, and the NCI and ACS guidelines should be strengthened to discourage this age group from submitting to screening.

Table of Contents
List of Illustrationsiii
Glossary Termsiv
General Informationv
Thesis Statementv
Report Audiencev
Authors Purposev
Argumentative Requirement Fulfillment Statementv
Introduction1
Current Recommendations3
Increased Breast Cancer Risk4
Background and Overview of Screening Mammography4
Film Mammography5
Digital Mammography5
Additional Screening Methods6
Balacing Risks vs. Life-Saving Benefit7
Negligible Risks Claim7
Refutation of Negligible Risks Claim8
Decreased Mortality Claim9
Refutation of Decreased Mortality Claim9
Conclusion12
References15

List of Illustrations

Figure 1. Diagram of Breast……………………………………………………………………….2

Figure 2. Film vs. Digital Mammogram…………………………………………………………..6

Glossary of Terms
ACS| American Cancer Society|
Aneuploidy| Having an incomplete chromosome set.|
BSE| Breast Self Examination|
Benign| A lump or mass that is not considered cancerous, grows at a slow rate, or poses little to no threat to health| BI-RADS| Breast Image Reporting and Data System: A comprehensive system for classifying breast cancer, including treatment systems.| BRCA| Breast Cancer Associated Gene, people who possess this gene are at a much higher risk for developing breast cancer.| Calcification| Calcium deposits in the breast.|

CBE| Clinical Breast Exam, usually a manual exam performed by a primary care physician or an OBGYN.| Duct| The mammory tissues that carry the milk to the nipple in a lactating female.| DCIS| Ductal Carcinoma In Situ - this is the most common type of breast cancer, beginning in the breast ducts. 7 out of 10 breast cancers are DCIS| False-Negative| When a mammogram comes back negative for breast cancer when cancer is actually present.| False-Positive| When a mammogram comes back positive for breast cancer when no breast cancer is present.| High Breast Density| Typical of pre-menopausal women, breasts are denser before menopause replaces most of the dense tissue with fatty tissue.| Lump| A clumping of abnormal cells in the breast - see also: Mass| Malignant| A lump or mass that is considered cancerous, grows quickly, and is considered a serious threat to health| Mammogram| Several x-rays taken of the breast that are later examined in order to determine whether or not cancer is present.| Mass| A clumping of abnormal cells in the breast - see also: Lump| Menopause| the period of permanent cessation of menstruation, usually occurring between the ages of 45 and 55.| Metastasis| When cancer cells originating in one part of the body migrate to another part of the body as well.| Morbidity| The proportion of sickness in a certain group or locality.| Mortality| The number of deaths in a population associated with a particular cause of death; death rate.| NCI| National Cancer Institute, a sub-group of the NIH.|

NIH| National Institute of Health, an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services of the United States| Over-Diagnosis| Characterized by the number of cancers treated agressively even though they posed no threat to health.|...
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