Boxing Tsunami Case Study

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Joseph Ritchie

2004 Boxing Day Tsunami
1. Explain the causes of the 2004 boxing day Tsunami (6)
A Tsunami forms when energy from an earthquake vertically jolts the seabed by several metres, displacing hundreds of cubic kilometres of water. Large waves begin moving through the ocean, away from the earthquakes epicentre. In deep water the Tsunami moves at great speeds. When it reaches shallow water near coastal areas, the Tsunami slows but increases in height. Before the Boxing Day Tsunami in 2004 the waterline suddenly retreated exposing hundreds of metres of beach and sea bed. The several waves of the Tsunami came of intervals of between 5 and 20 minutes. Tsunamis occur when

* The earthquake measures more than 6.5 on the Richter scale * The earthquakes focus is shallow beneath the earth’s surface * The focus is also beneath the ocean

The Boxing Day Tsunami was estimated between 9.0 and 9.3 on the Richter scale, the trust heaved the floor of the Indian Ocean towards Indonesia by about 15 metres and sent shock waves. Theses shock waves radiated out in a series of ripples moving unnoticed across oceans until they hit land. The longer and shallower the approach the more the ripples built up height. The waves that struck the shallow coastline near Banda Aceh and parts of Sri Lanka were nearly 17 metres high on impact. Islands in the Maldives a four meter high sea swell rather than a crashing wall of water. 2. The distribution of missing or dead

1. Write a description for this graph and suggest reasons for the pattern shown (6) The graph above shows the number of deaths caused by the 2004 Tsunami and the number of people missing as a result of the Tsunami in all of the twelve e countries affected. Indonesia was affected badly as some areas of the country such as Western Sumatra are close to the earthquakes epicentre and it is a well-populated area, up to 70% of some coastal populations were killed or missing and up to 400,000 people were displaced. Sri Lanka was the second worst affected country the Southern and Eastern coastlines were ravaged with homes, crops and fishing boats destroyed. In India the South East Coast of the mainland was worst effected, up to 140,000 people were displaced. In the Andaman and Nicobar Islands salt water contaminated freshwater sources and destroyed arable land. Most of the Islands jetties were destroyed. In Thailand the West coast was servilely hit, including Islands and tourists resorts near Phuket, so the death toll included 1700 foreigners from 36 countries. Somalia was the worst hit African country, with the main damage occurring in the tip of the horn of Africa. Homes and boats were destroyed and fresh water wells and reservoirs were contaminated. Up to 30,000 people were displaced. In the Maldives 20 of the 1999 inhabited Islands were destroyed. The shallowness of the water limited the Tsunami’s destructive power but the flooding was extensive. A sea wall protecting the capital city Male prevented half of the city from being destroyed. Many of the countries tourists resorts were badly damaged affecting the country’s economy. Kenya was one of the least affected countries as they were warned early allowing the country to take action so many people were able to escape the coastal areas as a result only one person was killed. Lowest deaths| |

Lowest injuries| |
Highest injuries| |
Highest deaths| |

Lowest deaths| |
Lowest injuries| |
Highest injuries| |
Highest deaths| |

4/5. Sri Lanka (who died in the 2004 Tsunami)

6. Write a detailed and specify explanation for the pattern of deaths and injuries in Sri Lanka (6)
The map shows that the disaster occurred along the South East coast of the island because this is where the most deaths and injuries occurred. The area with the highest death toll is Ampara (10,436 deaths) this shows that Ampara is one of the most vulnerable areas in Sri Lanka and has the lowest...
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