Borderline Personality Disorder: Overview of an AXIS II Disorder from Various Studies that Demonstrate the Many Aspects from Beginning to End Nancy Ngo
Soka University of America
Borderline personality disorder is set apart by the other personalities with traits such as unstable interpersonal relationships with others, erratic mood changes, impulsive behavior, and suicidal tendencies. Individuals with this disorder tend to split, meaning they view people and situations as completely unfair or perfect, which brings about catastrophic mindsets. Causes and symptoms are not limited to childhood abuse, hereditary factors, and negative self-perceptions. Those with BPD are “treatment seekers” who impede their relationship with therapist with reckless train of thought, distrust, and self-destructive behavior when seeking for help. I will demonstrate the “beginning-to-end” process of a person with BPD by using the five articles to indicate the specific step by step psychological process a patient may encounter. The studies from “Betrayal trauma and borderline personality characteristics: Gender differences” (Kaehler & Freyd, 2012) are replicated from a previous research with a different demographic; in this case, a community sample of 749 with the mean age of 50.7, 96% Caucasian, and 80% married as opposed to a group of only college students in the first study. The objective is to link BPD with trauma and insecure attachment styles by using the Betrayal Trauma Theory, which proposes that “individuals may isolate knowledge about betrayals, such as those that occur during maltreatment, in order to maintain a relationship necessary for survival.” Repressed motions result in developing BPD; the nature of the trauma is heavily emphasized, rather than gender differences. Kachler and Freyd reused the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey and Borderline Inventory to find a correlation between borderline tendencies and levels of trauma within the two genders. Men with BPD identified with all levels of betrayal, ranging from low, medium, and high. Women held marks for only medium and high. What I learned that was that although there were three levels for betrayal and trauma, females and males subjectively used different trigger events. Males indicated near life experiences and accidents, verging on noninterpersonal traumas instead of females who focused on interpersonal trauma, such as being hurt by someone close to them. Women are more susceptible to traumas because women are “socialized to attend to interpersonal relationships more so than men”. Trust and the dynamics of relationships will affect women more than men, who focus on life-threatening aftermaths of an event. Women will tend to be emotionally attached and dependent, which may be reason why BPD is found less in men. In “The role of defense mechanisms in borderline and antisocial personalities” (Presniak, Olson, & MacGregor, 2010), the article discusses two studies on identifying which defenses are prominent in borderline and antisocial personalities by using two different methods of research to prove that the high comorbidity between the two causes overlapping diagnosis. The studies hoped to distinguish the differences by comparing and identifying major defenses. Out of 674 candidates, only 428 candidates passed due to incomplete measures of the Personal Assesment Inventory (PAI) and/or Defense Style Questionaire (DSQ), exaggerated negative/positive responding, and inconsistency. Finally, only 72 were diagnosed with antisocial/borderline personalities. The mean age was 20, almost all were Caucasian, and 85% of those with borderline personalities were women. After a MANOVA was conducted, it was discovered that Projecting, Splitting, Acting Out, and Passive Aggression were exceedingly common with those with BPD. In the second study, 83 out of 1,539 participants were asked to continue the study after the necessary screenings. They were asked to complete the...
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