Bone Fracture and Child

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Unit 016
Unit managing paediatric illness and injury
Outcome 1

1) Describe the common types of fractures:

The common types of fractures:

A fracture is simply a broken bone. When a bone breaks, the blood vessels, muscles and nerves around the site of the break will also be damaged.

Closed and open fractures:

Fractures can be one of the two main types, closed or open.

Closed fractures:

This is where the skin does not break at the site of the fracture, and is the most common type of fracture

Open fractures:

If an open wound occurs at the site of the fracture that is an open fracture. Sometimes the fractured bone sticks out of the wound. This creates a big risk of infection in the bone.

Young children’s bones are more flexible than adults’ and often a fracture may not break the full bone. This sort of fracture is sometimes referred to as a greenstick fracture.

Dislocation: the separation of a bone a joint can occur easily in children. Never tug or pull on a child’s arm or hand, and never pick up young children by their hands or arms.

2) How to manage a fracture:

When managing a fracture or dislocation, recognise that the child has an injury and call for an ambulance or get the child to hospital. First aid does not involve treating the injury.

It is usually easy to tell if a child has a fracture or dislocation. A child who is older is likely to tell you that their arm or legs hurt. Alternatively look for:

• Deformity – is the injured part in an unnatural position • Open wounds or breaks in the skin
• Tenderness
• Swelling around the injured area
• Loss of power, ability to move
• Unnatural position

Ask the child – ‘can you move it?’

Your role of a first aider is to maintain the injured part in the most comfortable position while waiting for the ambulance. A child will usually keep an injured arm or leg very still and will hold an arm close to their body, forming a natural splint.

3) What is dislocation?

Dislocation: the separation of a bone a joint can occur easily in children. Never tug or pull on a child’s arm or hand, and never pick up young children by their hands or arms.

4) Did this at the first aid course!

016
Outcome 2

1) Explain:

➢ Concussion:

Dizziness and nausea with or without a spell of unconsciousness

➢ Skull fracture

This is a break in the skull

➢ Cerebral compression

This is due to pressure on the brain which is from bleeding

2) Explain the most common way a head injury presents itself:

The most common way a head injury presents itself is that child will complain or show signs of concussion.

Signs of a head injury include:

❖ A bump
❖ Bruising
❖ Swelling
❖ Severe headache
❖ Nausea (feeling sick)
❖ Vomiting (more than once)
❖ Being pale and sweaty
❖ Blurry vision
❖ Pupils of the eyes evening in size
❖ Severe drowsiness (difficult to wake up)
❖ Irritability and aggression
❖ Fits
❖ Difficulty in walking or talking
❖ Loss of consciousness which nay only be for a few seconds ❖ Clear or blood-stained fluid from the ears or nose
❖ Bleeding from any part of the head
❖ Changes of behaviour
❖ Swollen fontanel’s (or soft spots) on a babies skull ❖ Change in the type of cry of a baby

3)

Describe how you would manage a head injury:

Continued bleeding inside the brain can cause serious disability or death. Bleeding can happen immediately after the injury or a few days later, or blood may build up slowly. If any of the symptoms above occur, you should call for an ambulance ad call the child’s parent immediately. While waiting:

• Control any external bleeding by applying pressure with a pad • Lay the casualty down
• If the child is unconscious, act as if there is also an injury to the neck • Make a note of the symptoms: vomiting, pupil size, how...
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