Unit 2 Managing Paediatric Illness and Injury

Topics: Bone fracture, Orthopedic surgery, Red blood cell Pages: 12 (3984 words) Published: March 5, 2013
Be able to provide first aid to an infant and a child with a suspected fracture and a dislocation. 1.1 Describe the common types of fractures.
Types of fracture
Fractures are divided into two types depending on whether or not they break through your skin. * Closed fractures. This is when your bone doesn't damage your skin. * Open (compound) fractures. In these fractures, the broken end of your bone breaks through your skin and may stick out.

* Hairline fracture. In which the bone does not separate because the line of break is so fine and only partially fractured. These fractures can be difficult to detect on x-rays. * Simple fracture. This is when your injury causes a single crack across the bone. * Complex fracture. These are also called spiral fractures due to their shape. They are caused by a twisting movement. Fractures in long bones, such as your thigh bone (femur) are often spiral fractures. The surfaces of the broken bone may not come together and be harder to heal properly. * Greenstick fracture. This is when your bone buckles and splits on one side, but just bends on the other. These usually occur in children as their bones are softer. * Comminuted fracture. In this type of fracture, your bone breaks into several fragments. This is more common after a serious accident. * Impacted fracture. This is when one of your bone fragments is driven into another after they separate. Signs and symptoms include deformity, discoloration, crepitus (a cracking, grating or scraping type noise made when bone ends rub together), tenderness, swelling, inability to move the affected extremity, pain when moving the affected extremity, bleeding and/or bone protrusion. If nerve, muscle or vessel compromise exists, then numbness, tingling and loss of sensation and/or pulses may be encountered. If a significant amount of blood is lost, either through a wound or internally, the patient may exhibit signs and symptoms of shock.

1.2 Describe how to manage a fracture
Disposable gloves should always be worn, and special attention should be paid to any fracture that may cause bleeding or the exposure of sharp edges. In situations where there's significant bleeding, it may be appropriate to utilize a mask with eye protection and a gown. Furthermore, I would make sure the patient has a patent airway and adequate breathing and circulation prior to assessing and treating any fractures. If a child has broken their arm, wrist or leg you can secure the bone with a sling or a splint to help reduce the pain and prevent further injury, until medical help has arrived.

1.3 What is the definition of a dislocation including the signs and symptoms of a dislocation? Dislocations occur when a great deal of pressure is placed on a joint or sudden impact to the join. A dislocated joint may be accompanied by numbness or tingling at the joint or beyond it, intensely painful, especially if you try to use the joint or bear weight on it, Limited in movement, Swollen or bruised, Visibly out of place, discoloured, or misshapen.

Be able to provide first aid to an infant and a child with a head, neck and a back injury.

2.1 Describe how to recognise and manage a head injury.

Toddlers tend to fall as they learn to walk; children fall or collide while playing and this remains the number one cause of head injury in children. Head injury signs and symptoms are headache, vomiting, and bleeding. Altered mental status, the child is not acting or behaving normally for that child. Scalp abnormalities, lacerations and swelling that may be associated with skull fracture.

* Concussion
A head injury that makes someone feels ill or become unconscious for a short time. * Skull fracture
Depending upon the location of the fracture, there may or may not be a relationship between a fractured skull and underlying brain injury. Of note, a fracture, break, and crack all mean the same thing, that the integrity of the bone has been...
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