Body Systems

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BASIC ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

Table of Contents

Introduction

Chapter 1..............................................Cardiovascular System (Circulatory)
Chapter 2..............................................Lymphatic System (Circulatory)
Chapter 3..............................................Respiratory System
Chapter 4..............................................Digestive System
Chapter 5..............................................Endocrine System
Chapter 6..............................................Urinary System
Chapter 7..............................................Reproductive System
Chapter 8..............................................Nervous System
Chapter 9..............................................Skeletal System
Chapter 10............................................Muscular System
Chapter 11............................................Integumentary System

I. INTRODUCTION

​A.​ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY DEFINED.

​Anatomy (anatome = to dissect.): The study of structure and the relationship of structures to one another.
​Different types of anatomy exist:
​1. Surface: The study of form and markings on the surface of the body. ​2. Gross (macroscopic): The study of structures that can be viewed without the use of a microscope. ​3. Systematic: The study of body systems.

​4. Regional: The study of specific regions of the body.

​Physiology: A study of the function of the human body or it’s parts.
​1. Each structure is custom modeled to carry out a particular function or set of functions. ​2. Structure very often determines the function the part will perform. ​3. Body functions influence the size, shape, and health of structures.

​B.​LEVELS OF STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION

​1. Chemical
​2. Cellular
​3. Tissue
​4. Organ
​5. System
​6. Organism

C. ​STRUCTURAL PLAN
​There are several anatomical & physiological aspects that make the human being different from other organisms. Some of these important differences include: ​1. The presence of a vertebral column.

​2. A tube-within-a-tube construction (the GI tract is one long tube running through our bodies, the other tube.) 3. Bilateral symmetry
​4. The presence of a cerebrum (higher level/abstract thought)

Body Directions

Posterior: Back or Dorsal
Anterior: Front or ventral
Distal: Toward the end
Proximal: Closer to the core or root of the extremity
Inferior: lower or below
Superior: higher or above
Lateral: Toward the side (away from midline)
Medial: Toward the center (toward midline)
Body Regions

The Four Quadrants

Four body cavities
1- Cranium / skull
2- Thoracic
3- Abdominal
4- Pelvic

RUQ-​Liver, Gall bladder​ LUQ- spleen, Pancreas, colon ​Colon, Small Intestine Small Intestine, stomach

RLQ-​Colon, Small Intestine, Appendix​LLQ- Colon, Small Intestine,
Ovaries Ovaries

Hollow organs:
​- when damaged: rupture, leak, inflammation, infection

Solid Organs:
​- when damaged: bleed heavily

Chapter 1
Circulatory System
The circulatory system is subdivided into the cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system.
Cardiovascular System
The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, which is a muscular pumping device, and a closed system of vessels called arteries, veins, and capillaries. As the name implies, blood contained in the circulatory system is pumped by the heart around a closed circle or circuit of vessels as it passes again and again through the various "circulations" of the body.

Purpose of the circulatory system:

1. Primary
b. Transport Oxygen and nutrients to the cells
c. Transport Carbon Dioxide and waste from the cells
2....
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