Bionic: Artificial Pacemaker and Electronic Noses

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  • Topic: Artificial pacemaker, Ear, Neuroprosthetics
  • Pages : 25 (8669 words )
  • Download(s) : 1090
  • Published : April 19, 2011
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Abstract

Bionics is a field, which combines both electronics and biology. In simple terms, when we think about bionics, it is generally more about prosthetic arms or leg enhancement worn outside the body and, to some extend, even implanted sensor devices inside the body, which are essentially enhanced to carry out certain routine tasks. These are essentially life systems that are powered by motors/actuators and sensory arrays. These send neural signals from affected part of the body to the brain, by which individual are Able to perform certain tasks independently.

TABLE OF CONTENT

1. INTRODUCTION………………………………………..2 2. TECHNOLOGIES USED………………………………..3 3. ARTIFICIAL MUSCLES………………………………..4 4. BIONIC HEART…………………………………………4 5. BIONIC EAR……………………………………………..9 6. ELECTRONIC NOSE …………………………………..11 7. ELECTRONIC TONGUE………………………………17 8. BIONIC EYE……………………………………………..19 9. BIONIC LEG……………………………………………..21 10. BIONIC HAND…………………………………………..27 11. FUTURE OF BIONICS …………………………………29 12. CONCLUSION…………………………………………..30 13. REFERENCE……………………………………………..31

1. Introduction

Bionics (also known as biomimetics, biognosis, biomimicry, or bionical creativity engineering) is the application of methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology. Unfortunately, we are not bestowed with such unique regenerating capabilities that the starfish or the common lizard possess to grow back our arms and legs, restoring them to their original state. Stem cell research may be the answer, but no one knows for sure and, till then, it’s going to be artificial implants and this is where bionics comes into the picture. Let’s take a look at all that could possibly be done to restore or reconstruct a damaged human body. In simple terms, when we think about bionics, it is generally more about prosthetic arms or leg enhancement worn outside the body and, to some extend, even implanted sensor devices inside the body, which are essentially enhanced to carry out certain routine tasks.These are essentially life systems that are powered by motors/actuators and sensory arrays. These send neural signals from affected part of the body to the brain, by which Individual are Able to perform certain tasks independently.This approach results in a hybrid systems combining biological and engineering parts, which can also be referred as cybernetic organism (cyborg). This definition of bionics is best known to the general public in reference to the television series The Six Million Dollar Man, in which the titular cyborg character is referred to as a "bionic man".In medicine, Bionics means the replacement or enhancement of organs or other body parts by mechanical versions. Bionic implants differ from mere prostheses by mimicking the original function very closely, or even surpassing it.Researchers say substituting wires for nerves is still many years away. But what about now? We've known that computers can talk directly to the brain but is there a way that the brain can talk directly to a computer? "When we have a thought, we know that there's activity, electrical activity, in the brain," says Kennedy. "So we're trying to pick up some of that activity, and use that in our simple systems just to control a computer cursor." Here's how it works. Commands from the brain are read through a brain implant, placed inside the motor cortex, the part of the brain that controls body movement. As the patient thinks about a movement, the electrode picks up a signal, amplifies it, then transmitts it through the skin to a computer.In experiments, a quadriplegic man has been able to move a computer cursor just by thinking about it, and a monkey has moved a robotic arm in the same way.Even though these devices are still in the future, bionics are already around us. A cochlear implant, a morphine pump, or even an artificial heart are examples of this merging of electronics and...
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