Biology Things

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Bio 101 Chapter 1

Diversity of Life
3 Domains /6 Kingdoms
Archaea/Archaea
Bacteria/Bacteria
Eukarya/Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia

Kingdom Archaea:
Prokaryotes; Ancient Bacteria

Kingdom Bacteria:
Prokaryotes; Common Bacteria

Kingdom Protista
Eukaryotes; Unicellular organisms (small)
Algae (unicellular, colonial, small or multicellular, Large)

Kingdom Fungi
Eukaryotes;Non-photosynthetic, multicellular (except yeast), External digestion

Kingdom plantae
Eukaryotes; photosynthetic, multicellular

Kingdom Animalia
Eukaryotes;non-photosynthetic, multicellular, internal digestion BASIC PROPERTIES OF LIFE
1.Cellular organization
2.Metabolism
3.Homeostasis
4.Growth and reproduction
5.Heredity
Organization of life

Cellular level:
Atoms – molecule – macro molecule – organelle (bound by membrane) – cell Organismal level:
Tissue – organ – organ system – organism
Population level:
Population – species – community – eco system

Reading scientific graphs:
Independent variable – your own setting – x axis
Dependent variable – measurement, Y-axis

Centrioles (p. 87)
Pull chromosomes during mitosis (animal cells)
Assemble microtubules
Anchor flagella / cilia

3 Differences between animal cells
Position of nucleus

Control Tower (p81)
Nucleus:Control center, directs protein synthesis and cell reproduction Nucleolus:Assembles Ribosomes

Manufacture / Delivery / Products (p82)
Rough endoplasmic reticulum:Protein synthesis (with ribosomes) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum:Lipid synthesis
Golgi complex:Recieves vesicules from ER, processes and transfer them within / without of the cell Lysosome: Recycling center; digests waste
Peroxisome:Detoxifies strong oxidants
Ribosome:Site of protein synthesis

Supporting structure (p86)

Cytoskeleton:Structural support, cell movement, vesicule transportation. Anchors organelles 1. Microfilaments (actin filaments)
2. Microtubules
Hollow tubes, vesicule transport,
Stabilize structure, flagella, cilia
3. Intermediate Filaments
Intermediate in size, stable support

Cell wall: Protection, support

Storage
Central Vasicule -Store water and other materials, ect.

Plasma Membrane: Lipid bi-layer
Phospholipid
Polar (hydrolic) heal?
2 non-polar (hydrophobic) tails (oily)

BE FAMLIAR WITH THE FOLLOWING DIAGRAMS!!
P. 75 Plasma Membranes
P. 78,79Animal / plant cell
P. 86Cytoskeleton

CHAPTER 8: MITOSIS

Mitosis:Growth, repair and replacement of Somatic Cells
2n: Diploid, homologous chromosomes
Meiosis:Sexual reproduction
N: Haploid, sperms and eggs (gametes)

Prokaryotes:Binary fission (p 154)

Eukaryotes:Mitosis

Genetic Substances
Chromatin:Thin thread, invisible\
Chromosome:Coiled chromatin, visible (p. 156)
Chromatid:(sister chromatids): replicated chromosome

Animal Cell Division (p158)
Interphase:Primary growth, chromosomes replicate

M (mitosis) phase: KNOWProphase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

C (cytokinesis) phase:Creating 2 daughter cells

Interphase = Non dividing phase

Humans have 46 chromosomes

Human interphase:
46(92(92(92(92(92

Cell death or Apoptosis (p160 fig 8.7)

Cancer (p164) (Apoptosis does not work in cancer cells)
Damaged DNA allows cells to keep dividing
-Chemicals:Benzene, Aflatoxin (Aspergillos)
-Radiation / UV
-Virus:Human papilloma virus, HPV, Cervix

PAGE 158-159 DIAGRAM WILL BE ON TEST!!

Chapter 4
Diffusion (p93)
Random movement of molecules from HIGH concentration to LOW concentration. Goal: Equilibrium

Osmosis (p96)
Diffusion of WATER molecules through semi-permiable membrane. Goal: Equalize water concentration inside and outside of the membrane.

Isotonic:Water concentration is equal
Hypotonic:More water than our body...
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