Biology

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Biology Honors Final Exam Review Study Guide

A. Intro Unit
* Characteristics of life (DR.CHARGE)
* DNA
* Directs protein synthesis
* Reproduce
* Divides in mitosis (asexual reproduction)
* Cells
* Homeostasis
* The process by which cells maintain constant internal condition (water, temperature) * Adaptation (Evolution)
* Respond to stimulus
* Growth (Development)
* Energy
* Heterotroph: an organism that cannot synthesize its own food * Autotroph: an organism that can self-feed itself usually from photosynthesis * Sustainability Unit
* Sustainability
* Ability to meet present needs by not compromising the ability of future generations * Indicators
* Observation that shows present state of conditions
* Nitrogen / Phosphate, Carbon Dioxide emission, GDP, Malnutrition, Population, Energy consumption, Per capita * Country with high Carbon dioxide emissions means that the country is highly industrialized. * Perspectives

* Environmentalist vs. Fertilizer plant owner and farmer
* Environmentalist opposes fertilize usage because of clean environment * Fertilizer plant owner use nitrogen and phosphate in order to continue the business * Farmer supports usage of fertilizer

* Ecological Footprints
* Measurement estimates amount of resources consumed and waste produced by individuals, community, or even manufactured products * One in developed country has higher ecological footprint than one in developing country because of more resource consume and waste production * Eutrophication

* Excessive algae growth and oxygen deficiency
* Caused by elevated levels of phosphates and nitrates (nutrients for plants to grow) * Correlation
* Relationship between one event and another
* Casual relationship
* Cause and effect (one event produces another event)
* Trade-offs
* Outcomes given up to gain other outcomes
* Factory provides economic benefits, but also causes air pollution

B. Chemistry
* Bonding
* Covalent bond: Two atoms share valence electrons
* Polar: Molecules have opposite charges on opposite ends because of electronegativity (Hydrophilic) * Non-polar: charges equally distributed (Hydrophobic)
* Ionic bond: between oppositely charged ions
* Hydrogen bond: weak electrical attractions between neighboring water molecules * Structure of atom
* Valence electrons: Determines type of bonds depending on how easy it is to fill their valence. If they are really close (valence 6 sometimes, 7) they'll take and be negative ion. If they are valence 1 or 2; they'll donate and fall back on inside energy level (like sodium) * Atomic number: Number of protons

* Atomic mass: Number of protons and neutrons
* Properties of water
* Water is a polar molecule
* Hydrogen bonds attract water molecules to stick together and also with polar molecule with an ion * Cohesion: Attraction between same kind of molecules
* Adhesion: Attraction between different kinds of molecules * Hydrophobic: Cannot form hydrogen bonds with water
* Hydrophilic: Can form hydrogen bonds with water
* Electronegativity: Water is able to form hydrogen bonds due to its electronegativity. (Oxygen is negative and hydrogen is positive) * Thermal properties
* Solute: A substance that is being dissolved in a solution * Keep warm: Decrease in temperature slows down water molecules → Forms and keeps hydrogen bonds → Heat is released in atmosphere * Keep cool: Water absorbs heat and it disrupts hydrogen bonds → Additional heat is used to increase temperature of molecules * Solvent: Dissolving agent in a solution. Water is the most versatile known solvent * Macromolecules

* Lipids (Non-polar, Hydrophobic): Fuel reserve, maintain warm body temperature * Dietary fat
* Structure: Glycerol with three fatty acids
* Monomer: Glycerol with three...
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