Biological Importance of Group 1a-2a

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. IA (Alkaline Metals)
1.1. H………………………………………………………………………..2 1.2. Li………………………………………………………………………..2 1.3. Na………………………………………………………………………2 1.4. K………………………………………………………………………..3 1.5. Rb………………………………………………………………………3 1.6. Cs………………………………………………………………………3 1.7. Fr……………………………………………………………………….4 1. IIA (Alkaline Earth Metals)

2.8. Be………………………………………………………………………4 2.9. Mg………………………………………………………………………4 2.10. Ca………………………………………………………………………4 2.11. Sr……………………………………………………………………….4 2.12. Ba………………………………………………………………………5 2.13. Ra………………………………………………………………………5

1. Group IA
2.1. H
Hydrogen binds with Oxygen to form water. Without water, we can not survive. In fact, we are mostly made of water.

2.2. Li
Lithium does not occur naturally in biological systems and has no biological role, but does have effects on the body when ingested. Lithium carbonate is used as a mood stabilizer in psychiatry to treat bipolar disorder (manic-depression) in daily doses of about 0.5 to 2 grams, although there are side-effects. Excessive ingestion of lithium causes drowsiness, slurred speech and vomiting, among other symptoms, and poisons the central nervous system, which is dangerous as the required dosage of lithium to treat bipolar disorder is only slightly lower than the toxic dosage. The metal lithium is not essential for any biological functions, but was found to exist in extremely tiny quantities in umbilical cord blood. While it is considered a non-essential trace element (an element needed in extremely tiny amounts for proper growth), lithium also has medicinal uses. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-week long study conducted by a group of doctors on severely depressed patients proved that lithium is a key component in the treatment of severe depression. It has also been proven to play a role in the treatment of other mental disorders. One recorded instance was the case of a girl who developed a condition known as Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, who was given an antipsychotic drug (a tranquilizing drug that induces a state of relative calm). She quickly developed the symptoms of NMS, and was quickly hospitalized. There, doctors began treating her for the disorder, and in the final stage of her treatment, lithium was administered to her to help stabilize her mental functions. Weeks later, she was released and was in good physical health, but retained her previous diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (a mental disorder that encompasses periods of mania and depression interspersed by periods of normal behavior).

2.3. Na
Sodium and potassium occur in all known biological systems, generally functioning as electrolytes inside and outside cells. Sodium is an essential nutrient that regulates blood volume, blood pressure, osmotic equilibrium and pH; the minimum physiological requirement for sodium is 500 milligrams per day. Sodium chloride (also known as common salt) is the principal source of sodium in the diet, and is used as seasoning and preservative, such as for pickling and jerky; most of it comes from processed foods. The DRI for sodium is 1.5 grams per day, but most people in the United States consume more than 2.3 grams per day, the minimum amount that promotes hypertension; this in turn causes 7.6 million premature deaths worldwide. Sodium and potassium are very common alkali metals. These elements are essential for the existence of all known life. They are found in the cytoplasm (organic fluid, mainly water) of all living cells, and they are critical to everyday cell operation and regulation. Sodium is the main electrolyte component of the animal and human body fluids. The physiological saline solution is a 0.9 % (mixed) aqueous solution of NaCl. Also, a common sodium salt, sodium chloride (table salt), has been identified many times as a contributor to hypertension in humans. A double-blind, two-month study was conducted on a...
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