Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (also known by its abbreviation CBT) was primarily developed through an integration of behavior therapy (first popularized by Edward Thorndike) with cognitive therapy (developed by Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis). The first discrete, intentionally therapeutic approach to CBT to be developed was Rational Emotive Therapy (RET), which was originated by Albert Ellis, Ph.D. in the mid-1950's. Ellis developed his approach in reaction to his disliking of the in-efficient and in-directive nature of Psychoanalysis. The philosophic origins of RET go back to the Stoic philosophers, including Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius. While rooted in rather different theories, these two traditions found common ground in focusing on the "here and now", and on alleviating symptoms. CBT is a short-term, goal-oriented psychotherapy treatment that takes a hands-on, practical approach to problem-solving. Its goal is to change patterns of thinking or behaviour that are behind people’s difficulties, and so change the way they feel. CBT is a form of psychotherapy in which the therapist and the client work together as a team to identify and solve problems. Therapists use the Cognitive Model to help clients overcome their difficulties by changing their thinking, behavior, and emotional responses. Cognitive therapy has been found to be effective in more than 1000 outcome studies for a myriad of psychiatric disorders, including; •Depression
among others, and it is currently being tested for personality disorders. It has also been demonstrated to be effective as an adjunctive treatment to medication for serious mental disorders such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia Epictetus wrote in The Enchiridion, "Men are disturbed not by things, but by the view which they take of them.(2010:pg344) Ellis developed and popularized the ABC model of emotions, and later modified the model to the A-B-C-D-E approach. In the 1990's Ellis renamed his approach Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy known as shortened to (RET), due to the popularization of the ABC model emotions. ABC theory of emotional disturbance break down how our attitudes and beliefs cause our emotional reaction to certain events. A – Attractive experience – the event or situation
B – Irrational belief about event
C – Upsetting emotional consequences
D – Disputing of irrational ideas
E – New emotional consequence of effect
This aims to change any behaviours that are harmful or not helpful. Various techniques are used. For example, a common unhelpful behaviour is to avoid situations that can make you anxious. In some people with phobias the avoidance can become extreme and affect day-to-day life. This is where you are gradually exposed more and more to feared situations. They are often combined because how we behave often reflects how we think about certain things or situations. The emphasis on cognitive or behavioural aspects of therapy can vary, depending on the condition being treated. For example, there is often more emphasis on behavioural therapy when treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) - where repetitive compulsive actions are a main problem. In contrast, the emphasis may be on cognitive therapy when treating depression. The first session of therapy will usually include time for the therapist and you to develop a shared understanding of the problem. This is usually to identify how your thoughts, ideas, feelings, attitudes, and behaviours affect your day-to-day life.
The stronger person is not the one making the most noise but the one who can quietly direct the conversation toward defining and solving problems (1996: pg 228)
Transaction Analysis (also known by its abbreviation TA) is an integrative approach to the theory of psychology and psychotherapy. It is...