Biochemistry Exam 1 Study Guide

Topics: Protein, Amino acid, Protein structure Pages: 31 (4954 words) Published: April 25, 2014
Biochemistry Lecture Exam 1 Study Guide

Chapter 1: Biochemistry: An Introduction

I. Introduction
a. Biochemistry: the study of molecules and chemical reactions of life b. Divided into 3 principal areas:
1. Structural chemistry of components of living matter & relationship of biological function to chemical structure 2. Metabolism – total chem reactions that occur in living matter; building & breaking down of molecules 3. Chemistry of processes & substances that store & transmit biological info Where do you get info to build molecules & where do you store the info when breaking it down How is it changed, how is the change affecting it? Mutation

c. Central principles
1. Cells – highly organized basic structural units of living things; requires constant source of energy 2. Living processes consist of thousands of chem reactions that must be precisely regulated & integrated 3. Certain fundamental reactions pathways are found in all organisms 4. All orgs use same types of molecules: carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids 5. Instructions for growth, development, and reproduction are encoded in each organisms nucleic acids Have to know how cells are regulated and where this info is coming from Why/how energy is made or used up – always tracking that

II. Cells
a. Prokaryotic cells
Small & structurally simple
Bounded by cell wall & plasma membrane
No nucleus or other organelles
Circular DNA = chromosome in region called nucleoid
May contain addition small circular DNA = plasmids
b. Prokaryotic cell structures & function
1. Cell wall: primary source of support; maintains shape
2. Plasma membrane: phospholipid bilayer, selective permeable barrier; receptor proteins detecting nutrients & toxins; nutrient uptake and waste disposal; photosynthesis & respiration 3. Chromosome – attached to PM; DNA

4. Plasmids: biochemical advantage to cell
5. Pilli & flagella: external appendages; attachment & transfer info; movement c. Eukaryotic Cells
Larger
Bounded by plasma membrane
Has a nucleus that contains cells DNA
Has cytoplasm that contains organelles: ER, Golgi app, lysosomes, mitochondria Subdivision of labor
d. Eukaryotic cell structures & functions
1. Plasma Membrane: isolates from outside; lipid bilayer; proteins; regulates passage of ions and molecules in and out; receptors in signal transduction; has glycocalyse  cell-to-cell recognition & adhesion, receptor specificity & self identity 2. ER: ½ cells total membrane

RER: ribosomes on surface – protein processing, transport, export SER: synthesis of lipid molecules; stores Ca+ ions
3. Golgi Apparatus: packaging & distribution of cell products to internal and external compartments 4. Nucleus: contains cells genome, chromatin fibers, DNA, histones, nuclear matrix 5. Nucleosis: rRNA synthesis, ribosomal assembly & processing reactions for several types of RNA 6. Nuclear envelope: separate DNA replication and transcription processes from cytoplasm 7. Lysosomes: digestive enzymes (acid hydrolases) – degrade debris in cell by autophagy & play role in receptor mediated endocytic pathway; also involved in secretory processes 8. Mitochondria: aerobic metabolism; synthesis of ATP; metab of AA, lipids, & iron & calcium homeostasis; regulators of apoptosis 9. Peroxisomes: oxidative enzymes; involved in degradation of fatty acids, syn of certain membrane lipids and degradation of purine bases; most noted for generation & breakdown of toxic molecules – peroxides 10. Cytoskeleton: cell shape, cell movement, solid state biochemistry, signal trans 11. Ribosomes: RNA/protein complexes; biosynthesis of proteins III. Biomolecules

a. Biomolecules: molecules synthesized by living organisms that are organic (carbon based); living processes such as growth and dev involved thousands of chem reactions in which vast quantities & varieties of vibrating and rotating molecules interact, collide, and rearrange into new molecules 1. About 75% of cells content by...
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