Biol 200 Exam 1 Study Guide

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Short answer questions – generally complex by their nature and require knowledge and integration of several different concepts 1. Explain what are the end goals of reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. Outline the steps both procedures share and the step(s) specific for each procedure. •Reproductive Cloning- Reproductive cloning is a type of cloning which is performed for the purpose of creating a duplicate copy of another organism. It is accomplished using a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer. In 1996, Scottish researchers announced that they had successfully cloned the first mammal, a sheep that came to be known as Dolly. Numerous other mammals have been cloned since then, and cloning has become a contentious ethical and scientific issue in some parts of the world. •Therapeutic Cloning- Therapeutic cloning is cloning that is performed for the purpose of medical treatment. It could theoretically be used to grow a replacement organ, for example, to generate skin for a burn victim, or to create nerve cells for someone suffering from brain damage or a neurological condition. The process is closely related to reproductive cloning, in which a copy of an organism is produced, but the two have very different end goals. •End goals for each- The end goal for reproductive cloning is simply to create a duplicate copy of the organism. The end goal for therapeutic cloning is for medical purposes. It can be used to grow organs or regenerate skin. •Steps shared by both types of cloning-

In somatic cell nuclear transfer, scientists extract the nucleus of a somatic cell, a cell which can come from anywhere in the body, and insert it into an egg which has had its nucleus removed. The egg is stimulated, and it begins dividing and growing. This is the main steps in both types of cloning. •Specific in reproductive cloning- developing into an embryo which can be implanted into a gestational surrogate and carried to term. The egg is allowed to grow into a baby. •Specific in therapeutic cloning- the growing egg is used as a source of stem cells, which are undifferentiated cells that can grow into a wide variety of different types of cells.

2. Protein “X” is build from one polypeptide chain and has globular structure. How many levels of protein structure does protein “X” have? Explain your reasoning and make sure to write a definition for each level of protein structure relevant to protein”X”. •Tertiary structure, which involves the global folding of a protein. •Refer to #5 for all protein structure levels.

Tour of the Cell:
1. Cells are the structural and functional units of all living organisms. Some organisms, such as bacteria, are unicellular, consisting of a single cell. Other organisms, such as humans, are multicellular, or have many cells. Principle of the cell theory- 1. All organisms consist of one or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic unit of structure for all organisms. 3. All cells arise only from preexisting cells. Hallmark characteristics of cells-

1. Ingestion – Intake of nutrients
2. Digestion – Enzymatic breakdown, hydrolysis, of food so it is small enough to be assimilated by the body.
3. Respiration – Metabolic process that produce energy for all the life processes.
4. Transport – Distribution of molecules from one part of a cell to another or from one cell to another.
5. Regulation – ability to maintain internal stability, homeostasis
6. Synthesis – Combining of small molecules or substances into larger, more complex ones.
7. Excretion -- Removal of metabolic waste.
8. Egestion – removal of undigested waste.
9. Reproduction – Ability to generate offspring.
10. Irritability – Ability to respond to stimuli
11. Locomotion – Moving from place to place
12. Metabolism – Sum total of all the life functions
2. Structures present in all types of cells: Cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes and DNA. Cell membrane-The cell membrane or plasma membrane is a...
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