SOC 312 Child, Family & Society
Bio ecological Model of Human Development
The bio ecological model of human development has four basic systems. The four basic systems are macrosystems, exosystems, microsystems, and mesosystems. I will summarize the four systems and how the influences have on a child's development. I will describe how the four systems in the model differ from oneother. I will provide examples of the four systems of their relationships and interactions with one another. A microsystem: a relationship and activity that experienced by a developed person in immediate environments like family, school, peer group, community and media. Family provides affection, nurturance, and opportunities. School is a formal learning environment. Peer groups help with experiences in independences, companionship, support, cooperation, and a role to take. Community helps children learn how to do by watching people work. Media helps provided the view of the world. Mesosystem: an interrelationship and linkage between two or more person in a microsystem that compromise of connections between immediate environments likes a child's home and school. The impact on a child depends on the number of interrelationships. Exosystem: a setting that children do not participate, but it does affect one of their microsystems. Also, their external environmental setting indirectly affects the development like a parent's workplace. An example: a low-income family would have to get food stamps, Medicaid, and or TANF. My family is part of this system because my family gets food stamps and Medicaid. We had to fight for the help though. Macrosystem: a society and subculture that belongs to a developing person with certain beliefs, lifestyles, interactions, and changes in their live that consist of a larger cultural context of national economy, political culture, and subculture. Examples of macrosystems are family planning services and affordability of contraceptives which can influence teen pregnancy and birth rates. Young women are taking to the Planned Parenthood in their area to get birth control pills to prevent teenage pregnancy. According to Hall; there are two classifications of macrosystems; low and high context. Low-context macrosystem concise of progress, practicality, competition, and rationality. Examples: communication and relationships of social and natural environment. High-context macrosystem are concise of group identity, tradition, intuitiveness, and emotionality. Example of high-context macrosystem is adaptively. The ecological model's most basic unit of analysis in the microsystem is the immediate settings, including role relationships and activities. Microsystem mostly of the family, but as they grow and are exposed to day care, preschool classes, and neighborhood playmates, the system becomes more complex. Microsystems are dynamic contexts for development because of the bi-directional influences individuals impart on each other. Many micro-level determinants of health affecting early child development investigated and proposed. Factors like nutrition, shelter, hygiene, stimulation, support, attachment, and parenting style, investigated and correlated with later outcomes. The relative quality and/or quantity can have either positive or negative effects on health. On a practical level, the amount of parent involvement in the child's education related to children's educational achievement (Canadian Council on Social Development, 1997), and the specific language and cultural practices of the family, such as the amount of time spent reading together (Bus, van IJzendoorn, & Pellegrini, 1995) can have effects on the development of individual capacities. Similarly, family arrangement, constitution, and the amount of contact with extended family can affect child development through the kinds of...