Bio and Food

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  • Topic: Sugar, Glucose, Monosaccharide
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Date: 9/10/2012

Title: Carbohydrates: monosaccharides & disaccharides

Objective: To investigate the physical, functional and sensual properties of carbohydrates

Introduction:
Carbohydrates are the main energy source for human. There are different types of carbohydrates, monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide. Although different types of carbohydrates have different properties, they are important in human body, for example, glucose, glycogen, lactose, etc. This practical will examine the different properties of different types of carbohydrates.

Materials: As in the manual

Procedure: As in the manual

Result:
1) Relative Solubility of Carbohydrates, Glucose & Galactose

|Type of carbohydrates |Glucose |Galactose | |The weight of beaker(g) |36.38 |34.61 | |The weight of beaker with water(g)|46.51 |44.94 | |The weight of water(g) |10.13 |10.33 | |The weight of carbohydrates |5.55 |1.65 | |added(g) | | |

Table showing the weight of carbohydrates used, the weight of beakers containing the carbohydrates, and the weight of water used to dissolve the carbohydrates

Saturation point of glucose: 5.55×1000÷10.13=547.88mg/ml
Saturation point of galactose: 1.65×1000÷10.33=159.73mg/ml

2) Relative Sweetness and Taste Threshold

Bottle no.1 has the lowest concentration of the carbohydrates while bottle no.10 has the highest concentration of the carbohydrates.

|Groupmate |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 | |Bottle no. of sucrose |4 |4 |3 |3 |2 | |solution | | | | | | |Bottle no. of glucose |7 |6 |4 |4 |3 | |solution | | | | | | |Bottle no. of maltose |4 |3 |2 |2 |2 | |solution | | | | | |

Table showing the bottle no. of different carbohydrates solution first give a noticeable sweet taste of our group

3) Measuring Sugar concentration

|Type of carbohydrates |Sucrose |Glucose |Maltose | |Sugar Concentration(%Brix) |1.5 |2.5 |1.5 |

Table showing the sugar concentration of the taste threshold sample

|Type of soft drinks |Soft drink S |Soft drink G |Soft drink M | |Sugar Concentration(%Brix) |4.8 |5.9 |4.1 |

Table showing the sugar concentration of the soft drinks

4) Salt Taste Threshold

Bottle no.1 has the lowest concentration of the salt while bottle no.10 has the highest concentration of the salt. |Groupmate |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 | |Bottle no. of salt|2 |2 |1 |2 |2 | |solution | | | | | |

Table showing the bottle no. of salt solution first give a noticeable salt taste of our group 5) Sugar Crystallisation
Texture of the fudge: creamy and smooth
Taste of the fudge: sweet, with some chocolate flavor

Discussion:

In practice 1, the saturation point of glucose which is 54.8mg/ml is higher than that of galactose which is 16.0mg/ml. Glucose is mainly used as energy source for respiration to produce energy in human body. Having a relatively high solubility can help glucose dissolve in blood easily and to be sent to different parts of body through blood. Galactose is rarely found in nature. Galactose in diet usually comes from hydrolysis of lactose during...
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