Behavior

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Behavior
* Economic man
* Primarily rational 合理的
* Complete knowledge
* Needs defined清晰的
* Estimate satisfy action判断令人满意的行为
* Maslow马斯洛
* Physiological 85%生理学上的
* Safety 70%
* Social 50%
* Esteem 40%尊敬
* Self actualization 10%自我实现
* High evolvement decisions
* Low evolvement decisions
* Engle-Kollat-Blackwell (EKB)
* Mentalist心灵主义者
-exposure揭露, attention, comprehension理解, acceptance, retention保留 -stored information personality, attitudes, evaluative criteria可估价的标准, filter -Problem recognition – difference between the ideal and actual states - Internal search – memory scan

* External search – marketing and non-marketing sources * Purchase act – when, where, who from. How, etc.
* Further outcomes结局
* Cognitive dissonance认知的不和谐
* Behavioristic行为主义者
* Family, social class, money, opinion leaders. Etc.
* Can stop the process at any point
* Intergenerational两代人之间的 value transmission model * Family
* Religious institutions 体系
* Schools
* Early life experience
* Peers平辈
* Combine to form individual values
* Role playing
* Dominant role占优势的
* Roles tend to overlap重叠
* Role dissonance不一致
* Role consonance一致性
* Outlying roles偏离中心的
* Social settings
* Social forces
* Social class
* Upper class 2%
* Upper-middle 11%
* Lower-middle 36%
* Upper-lower 38%
* Lower-lower 13%
* Characteristics of social class
* Occupation
* Association协会
* Possessions财产
* Change social class
* Occupation
* Education
* Mobility流动性
* Marriage
* Massification大众化
* Upper america
* Middle America
* Lower America
* Opinion leaders
* Monomorphic单型的- only one area
* Polymorphic多形性的 – two or more areas
* Reference groups
* Primary
* Secondary
* Aspirational有抱负的
* Public necessities—wristwatch手表
* Strong brand influence
* Weak product influence
* Private necessities必需品 – mattress床垫
* Weak brand influence
* Weak product influence
* Public luxuries – golf clubs
* Strong product influence
* Strong brand influence
* Private私下的 luxuries – icemakers
* Strong product influence
* Weak brand influence
* Family influence
* Cohesion结合—emotional bonding情绪的结合
* Adaptability适应性—change power structure
* Communication—share feelings
* Types of families
1. Male dominated支配—male makes all major decisions
2. Female dominated—female makes all major decisions
3. Autonomic自主地 – equal number of decisions made by each spouse配偶 4. Syncretism融合—major decisions made jointly联合的 * Family decision makers
1. Gatekeepers
2. Influencer
3. Decider
4. Buyer
5. User

Segmentation分割
* Requirements
* Measurable可测量的
* Size, purchasing power, profile
* Substantial实质上的
* Accessible易受影响的
* Differentiable可变的
* Actionable可起诉的
* Major types of segmentation
1. Single segment
2. Sselective specialization
3. Maket specialization
4. Product specialization
5. Full market coverage
* Steps in segmentation
1. Determine needs of the consumer
2. Analyze simil arities/ differences
3. Develop consumer profiles
4. Select segments
* Position product
* What position, if any, do we hold
* What position do we want to hold
* What companies must be beat
* Sufficient充分的 capital to gain position
* Creative approach match
* Stick to one strategy
* Under positioned—vague不明确的 idea of what the company is * Over positioned – seen too narrowly狭窄的

Ethics
* Ethical issues
Problems requiring one to choose between actions that must be evaluated as right or wrong * Marketing ethics
Moral principles道德原则 that define right and wrong behavior in marketing * Ethical decisions
* Personal moral philosophies哲学
* Utility arianism – maximizing the greatest good for the...
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