Battle Analysis of San Juan Hill

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  • Topic: Battle of San Juan Hill, Theodore Roosevelt, Spanish–American War
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  • Published : June 11, 2012
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Battle analysis of San Juan Hill
Introduction
Throughout American history, a number of battles come to hold iconic positions in the shaping of this great nation: Lexington and Concord, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Alamo, Gettysburg, Belleau Wood, Pearl Harbor, Guadalcanal, Iwo Jima and the Battle of the Bulge, just to name a few. When the Spanish-American War of is thought of, the Battle of San Juan Hill undoubtedly comes to mind. Americans think of the great sacrifices throughout the fight. They think of Teddy Roosevelt charging up San Juan hill, leading his Rough Riders to a miraculous victory. They remember this all-American combination of valiant cowboys, Ivy Leaguers, Pawnee Scouts, polo players and New York City policemen (Roosevelt, 1999). The Spanish-American War was “A Splendid Little War,” shaped by the xenophobia of the yellow press methods of William Randolph Hearst and others. This misinformation drove the community and the politicians to command that a hesitant President McKinley go to combat to boot the unkind Spanish out of Cuba, and to “Keep in mind the Maine” (Azoy, 1961). It was obviously an elective combat and despite the fact that we approved a commandment that we would not take possession of Cuba, we broke up with the Spanish settlements of the Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam (Roosevelt, 1999).

Background
The names of San Juan Hill and Kettle Hill were given to these battles in the aftermath of this short-lived war. In this battle 760 Spanish army men were prearranged throughout the "San Juan Heights" region in preparation of an American attack on July 1, 1898. For indistinct causes, Spanish General Arsenio Linares failed to support this point, choosing to grasp nearly 10,000 Spanish reserves in the city of Santiago (Jeffry, 1996, p. 313). Spanish top of hill entrenchments, while characteristically well-concealed, were not all appropriately located for plunging fire, making return fire at the going forward Americans more tricky. Most of their defenses and ditch lines were laid out all along the geographic (definite) crest of the heights in its place of the armed crest. This destined that the fire from the Spanish troops would have complexity hitting the going forward opponent when the aggressive Americans arrived at the defilade at the foot of the heights. Once they began leveling the hill, on the other hand, the attackers would be in occupied view of the defenders, who could slot in the Americans with both, ransack and weaponry fire (Jeffry, 1996, p. 313). Most Spanish troops were comprised of untested conscripts. However, their officers were experts in fighting Cuban insurgents. The Spanish were also well-appointed with sustaining weaponry, and all Spanish soldiers were armed with 7 mm Mauser M1893 rifles, a contemporary repeating bolt dead arm with a high rate of fire, which make use of a high-velocity sealed unit and smokeless powder. Spanish weaponry units were armed mostly with contemporary rapid-fire breech-loading cannon, again used smokeless powder (Jeffry, 1996, p. 313). Bottom line of the War: Major factors that led to success or failure in the battle The Battle of San Juan Heights, was almost certainly the most recognized U.S. encounter in Cuba during the Spanish‐American War. The reason being that the media reported Theodore Roosevelt's encounter at “San Juan Hill”, which was more exactly the Battle of San Juan Heights and Roosevelt's famous charge happened closer Kettle Hill (Frank, 1997, p. 109).

U.S. Expeditionary Forces Assault
On 1 July 1898, the U.S. Expeditionary Forces in command of Maj. Gen. William R. Shafter battered the Spanish military protection of Santiago, where the Spanish regiment lay secluded in the anchorage. After distributing one separation to assault Spanish defenses at El Caney on his right flank, Shafter planned for the Fifth Corps to assault San Juan Heights, where Gen. Arsenio Linares had recognized an onward self-protective line 4,000...
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