No one knows exact beginning of spinning and weaving of textiles. However, it is thought that weaving originated earlier than spinning. Primitive people may have observed the interlaced grass and twigs in the nests of birds or they have seen rushes naturally interlacing as they grew and discovered formation of cloth, baskets, nets and huts etc. Spinning developed later when people may have thought to improve raw material.
People started to use fibers found in nature and hand processes to make fibers into cloth. Silk from China was famous item of trade and it was imported to Egypt as earlier as 1000 B.C. Cotton has been cultivated for more than 5000 years, it was grown and used for textile purposes in Indus Valley well before 2100 B.C and in Mexico by 3500 B.C.
With the passage of time both the fibers and processes of fabric formation improved. However, till 1700 A.D, manufacturing of cloth was essentially hand process. But, the industrial revolution of 1700’s altered both the technology and social and cultural life. Amazingly textile was the 1st area to undergo industrialization. Invention of most important machines like spinning machines, automatic looms and cotton gin, improved both the production and quality of fabric. These inventions provided the technical base for the industrialization of the textile industry. The textile industry was fully mechanized by early part of the 19th century. The next major developments in the field were to take place in the chemist’s laboratory. For example, synthesis of dyes in the laboratories and experiments of discovering certain natural materials in chemical solvents and then reformed into fibrous form, such as manufacturing of rayon. Enormous advance have been made in the technology for making fibers, spinning them into yarn, constructing fabric and in their coloration and finishing. Today with the application of advanced technology use of textile has expanded from the traditional area of clothing and home furnishing into the fields of construction, medicine, aerospace, sporting goods and industry. These applications have been made possible by the ability of textile scientists to ‘engineer’ textile fibers, yarn and fabrics for specific use.
Some of the major inventions are given below:
1. Ring Spinning machine was invented by American Thorp in 1828 2. Traveller was developed by Jenk in 1830
3. C.F Cross and E. J Bevan discovered viscose solution
4. Nylon filament production began commercially in 1940
5. Polyester fiber was developed in 1950s
6. Shuttle used in conventional loom was invented in 1733 by Kay 7. Jacquard weaving machine was developed by Joseph Marie Jacquard (1752-1834) 8. In 1953, first commercial projectile weaving machines were developed 9. In 1972, rapier weaving machines were developed
10. In 1975, air-jet weaving machines were developed
11. In 1856, W.H Perkin discovered the synthesis of Mauveine, a basic dye. Scope of Textile
Textiles have extremely important role in our daily life. A part of it is on of our basic needs, food, shelter and clothing. With the beginning of human civilization, people have used textiles of various types for covering, warmth, personal adornment and to exhibit wealth. Even today, textiles are still used for these purposes and everyone is an ultimate consumer. Including among the consumers are merchandisers of various types, from the wholesale textile manufacturer and merchant to the sales force in any retail store. Many industries, such as the automobile industry, are important consumers of textile. Some other consumers are homemakers, dressmakers, interior decorators and retail store customers. Textile industry is backbone of Pakistan’s economy. According to the Pakistan Economic Survey 2005-6, more than 62 % of total export of Pakistan consists of textiles. Not only this limits textile application, textile shares about 46 % of total manufacturing and about 35 %...