Produce a report to demonstrate your knowledge and understanding of differing theories of development. This report should identify how these theories have influenced current practice and include the following: Cognitive
DIFFERING THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT
There are many different theories of development which we use to understand children’s behaviour, reactions and the way in which they learn. Cognitive development - One of the theorists behind this theory was Jean Piaget who was a zoologist who became interested in children’s cognitive development. This area of development is also known as intellectual development, for example being able to remember someone’s name or distinguishing between colours . Cognitive development is strongly linked to communication and language development. Paget’s theory of learning is sometimes referred to as a ‘constructive approach’ as he suggested that children constructed or built up their thoughts according to their experiences in the world around them. He felt that learning was an ongoing process, with children needing to adapt their original ideas in a new piece of information seemed to contradict their conclusion. For example if a child is given milk in a blue beaker they become to learn that this is how milk is served. If then juice was served in a blue beaker they then have to rethink their theory that both milk and juice can come in blue beakers. Another theorist, Lev Vygotsky, believed that children’s social environment and experiences are also important. He saw children as ‘apprentices’ requiring to learn through others. He also though that children needed to be active in their own learning and that play is important for holistic learning (looking at all aspects of children’s development). Piaget used specific vocabulary to describe the process of children learning in this way. He also suggested that as children develop so does their thinking and grouped the cognitive development into four bands which are sensori-motor age which is development of object performance, approximately 0-2 years, pre-operational which is when the child uses symbols in play and thought, egocentrism, centration, animism and inability to conserve, approximately age 2-7 years, concrete operational, which is the ability to conserve, children begin to sole mental problems using practical supports such as counters and objects, age approximately 7-11 years, and lastly formal operational, when young people can think about situations that they have not experienced, being approximately 11-15 years. Through learning this theory has meant that children and young people are encouraged to do tasks together. Early Years settings and schools have attempted to provide more hands on and relevant tasks for children and young people as a result of this theory. Practitioners and teaches are able to work out the need s of children and plan activities accordingly. Working with children and young people we need to extend and challenge our thoughts so that their proximal development can emerge. The theorists have shown that social interaction of children is important together with being active in their learning.
Psychoanalytical development - This theory was first laid out by Sigmund Freud and refers to the definition and dynamics of personality development. Personality and actions are determined by the unconscious mind which develops in childhood. Freud suggested that there were three parts that made up our personality, firstly ‘id’ which is the instinctive part of our personality, governed by the drives and need of our body such as hunger and pleasure. He suggested that babies had only the ‘id’ when they were born, hence why a baby cries until it gets...