A Research Proposal
Presented to the
Faculty of the Department of Accountancy
School of Business and Economics
University of San Carlos
Cebu City, Philippines
In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the course
Advincula, Justine Ellis
Cañas, Jeffrey Kean
Eya, Gilbert Bryan
Paradela, Crispina Lisa
Sampere, Michael Mider
Month and Year Completed
Rationale of the Study
Energy, the capacity to do work, comes in different forms- chemical, mechanical, thermal, solar and electrical. Its sources include wind, water, the sun, fossil fuels, and thermal gradients. This technical term is interesting even to the layman because it provides lighting and runs most of the appliances inside the households. The increased flow of material goods to the households such as electric washing machines and dryers, computers, digital video disk players, and television sets, has shifted household maintenance and recreation from human energy to electric energy. Electricity, according to Buesing (1980, p.194) will go on to be the dominant energy source among households for three reasons- “it is the highest grade and most versatile energy source available, it is the most universally available energy source already in the homes, and it can be generated from any number of future energy sources”.
Among the different forms of energy, the alternating-current kind of electricity, supplied by power distributors from the generating stations through the transmission lines up to the service drop wires leading to household circuits, has become the most prevalent because it is the most convenient and the designed driver of many work, convenience and leisure machines and devices in the homes. It has the best prospects to increase energy utilization efficiency through the development of appliances and systems that optimize usage. It also “delivers excellent environmental performance, as it emits little CO2 and brings safety and comfort to our lives, among other diverse benefits.” (Raivanshi, 2003). The facets of alternating current electricity prevalence among households and best potentials for efficient usage and therefore contributing less to global warming and climate change- are the main reasons why it is the subject of this study, and it was the object of many previous investigations especially conducted during periods of energy crises. As Purchase (1980) has suggested, many reasons are apparent for wanting to reduce the amount of energy used and the money spent for energy. These include the desire to conserve natural resources, the wish to be independent of foreign suppliers, and the need to save money.
In general, families use electric energy directly for home heating and cooling, cooling and heating water, lighting, cooking, refrigerating, clothes’ ironing, grooming and recreation, some of which creates negative impacts to the environment. According to Hogan (1980), the family and the environment are linked in such a way that the more energy we use from our present nonrenewable sources, the more problems we create for ourselves and future generation.
The share of the developing world’s population residing in cities has doubled from 17% in 1950 to 34% in 1990.’ This figure is expected to reach 40% by the year 2000 when two billion people will be living in developing country urban areas, and 43 of 59 cities in the world with populations exceeding five million will be located in developing regions. The rapid pace of urbanization in developing countries generates fundamental changes in energy and material use patterns, as well as in the composition and concentration of pollution and waste flow. Improved...