Rocks and minerals are all around us. Earth’s crust and part of its mantle are made of rock. Rocks are made of minerals and have different properties. The properties of rocks include color, texture, luster, and hardness. We use rocks and minerals in many different ways. The steel in our buildings is made with iron, which is a mineral. The clay and glass used in our pottery and dishes are made of a mixture of rocks and minerals. We even need minerals to stay healthy, and we get them from a variety of different foods. Virtually everything we use or build or create in modern life involves rock, mineral and fuel resources taken from the earth. To categorized these in groups Metallic (platinum, gold, silver, aluminum, iron, tin) Nonmetallic (diamonds and other precious stones, gypsum, salt) and Rocks (marble, sand, gravel, granite).
It doesn't matter whether mining and processing iron ore or limestone, many of the advantages and disadvantages are common to these operations. Dust from mining quarrying causes air pollutions. Damaging of the landscape from mining, quarrying, waste tips etc. as well as loss of wildlife habitat. Metal or mineral extraction results in problems and issues in balancing ecological, environmental, economic, social advantage factors.
Energy is necessary for daily survival. Many forecasts of recoverable oil reserves and resources suggest that oil production will level off by the early decades of the next century and then gradually fall during a period of reduced supplies and higher prices. Gas supplies should last over 200 years and coal about 3.000 years at present rates of use. Future development crucially depends on its long-term availability in increasing quantities from sources that are dependable, safe, and environmentally sound. At present, no single source or mix of sources is at hand to meet this future need. The energy to provide heat for warmth, cooking, and manufacturing, or power for transport and mechanical work services...
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