Isolation of Aspergillus niger from garden soil for the production of amylase enzyme and effect of various parameters on enzyme, production is the main aim of this study. Enzymes are protein catalysts synthesized by living systems and are important in synthetic as well as degradative process. Amylases are starch degradative enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of internal a-1, 4-0-glycosidic bonds in polysaccharides such as starch in to simple sugar (glucose and maltose). It is produced by a variety of living organisms ranging from bacteria, fungi to plants and humans.
Enzymes are catalysts of biological processes. They are synthesized in cells by the normal machinery of protein synthesis. The structure of any enzyme is encoded by a structural gene, whole DNA base sequence is transcribed into a messenger RNA, and the mRNA are translated from its triplet into the amino acid sequence of the desired protein of the ribozyme and associated factors (Brook, et al 1969). The enzymes than folds spontaneously into its active conformation. Post translation modifications may be required to target an enzyme to its ultimate intracellular or extracellular location. Enzymes (including amylase) are the primary metabolites of the microorganisms. Microbial production of primary metabolites contributes significantly to the quality of life. Through fermentation, microorganisms growing on inexpensive carbon sources can produces valuable products such as enzymes, amino acids, nucleotides, organic acids and vitamins which can be added to fod to enhance its flavor or nutritive value.
Amylases from plant and microbial sources have been employed from centuries as food additives. Barley amylases have been used in brewing industry. Fungal amylases have been widely used for the preparation of oriental foods. In spite of wide distribution of amylases, microbial sources, namely fungal and bacterial amylases, are used for the industrial production due to advantages such as raw starch degrading amylases suitable for industrial applications and their cost effective, consistency, less time and space required for production and ease of process modification and optimization(Abe, et al 1998). Due to the increasing demand for these enzymes in various industries, there is enormous interest in developing enzymes with better properties such as raw starch degradating amylases suitable for industrial applications and their cost effective production techniques.
Now a day the new potential of using microorganism as biotechnological sources of industrially relevant enzymes has stimulated renewed interest in the exploration of extra cellular enzymatic activity in several microorganisms. Although many microorganisms produce this enzyme, the ones most commonly used for their industrial production are Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus amyloliquificans and Aspergillus niger. Among mold species producing high level of amylase, Aspergillus niger is used for the commercial production of alpha amylase. This enzyme is an extra cellular enzyme and therefore can be easily separated from the cell mass. Production of Amylase enzyme from Aspergillus niger (2011-‘12)’ Page 1
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Fermentation can be defined as aerobic or an aerobic oxidation of substrate to form the product of high value n using microorganisms. To meet the demand of industries, low cost medium is required for the production of αcroorganisms. low-cost amylase. Both SSF and submerged fermentation (SmF) could be used for the production of amylase, although traditionally these have been obtained from submerged cultures because of handling and greater control of submerged environmental factors such as temperature and pH (figure: 1)
For amylase production, liquid medium was used by shake flask method carried out at laboratory...