Artificial Intelligence

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This paper aims at presenting the concept of "Artificial Intelligence." It is the branch of Computer Science concerned with making computers behave like humans. It is the Science and Engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. It is the hot topic on many boards and software houses. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

This paper briefly describes how Artificial Intelligence works and the various techniques used in AI. It further describes, the greatest advances that have occurred in the field of Medicine, Military, Expert Systems, Robotics and Natural Language Processing. This paper deals with latest advances that have occurred in the field of games playing. The best computer chess programs are now capable of beating humans. In May 1997, an IBM super-computer called Deep Blue defeated world chess champion Gary Kasparov in a chess match. Today, the hottest area of Artificial Intelligence is neural networks, which are proving successful in a number of disciplines such as voice recognition and natural language processing. Robotics incorporating artificial intelligence interaction with laser, ultrasound, MRI scanning, are performing delicate brain surgery more accurately than by traditional surgical approaches. A.I. was used in the investigation of Mars in July 1997. This paper reflects the potential impact of AI on our lives. Artificial Intelligence is likely to continue to creep into our lives without us really noticing.



Why Artificial Intelligence?

• Motivation

How does Artificial Intelligence work?

• Planning
• Pattern Recognition
• Ontology
• Robotics
• Artificial Life
• Epistemology

Who uses Artificial Intelligence?

• Medicine
• Artificial Nose
• Military
• Game AI
• Natural Language Processing
• Expert Systems

Future of AI Technology

• Telephone Translator
• A Greater Use of Expert Systems
• Passing the Turing Test
• Research assistants

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Science which deals with helping machines find solutions to complex problems in a more human-like fashion. This generally involves borrowing characteristics from human intelligence, and applying them as algorithm in human friendly way. It is basically the ability of a machine to think for itself. It aims at getting computers to do tasks which require human intelligence. In short it can be described as: Simple things turn out to be the hardest to automate:

*Recognizing a face.
*Navigating a busy street.
*Understanding what someone says.

Why Artificial Intelligence?

Computers are fundamentally well suited to performing mechanical computations, using fixed programmed rules. This allows artificial machines to perform monotonous tasks efficiently and reliably, which humans are ill - suited to. For more complex problems, things get more difficult. Unlike humans, computers have trouble understanding specific situations, and adapting to new situations. Artificial Intelligence aims to improve machine behaviour in tackling such complex tasks.

How does Artificial Intelligence work?


Over the past five decades, AI research has mostly been focusing on solving specific problems. Numerous solutions have been devised and improved to do so efficiently and reliably. This explains why the field of Artificial Intelligence is split into many branches. Some of the branches have been explained below:

Planning programs start with general facts about the world (especially facts about the effects of actions), facts about the particular situation and a statement of a goal. From these, they generate a strategy for achieving the goal. In the most common cases, the strategy is just the sequence of actions.

Pattern recognition:
The main focus in AI today is getting a...
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