A. Historical Milleu of the development of the bioethical issue The reproductive revolution is upon us. The past half-century has seen the development of reproductive technologies previous generations could not even imagine. The term reproductive technology refers to various medical procedures that are designed to alleviate infertility, or the inability of a couple to produce a child of their own. These include artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization (or "test-tube" babies), and surrogate motherhood. These technologies have radically expanded human control over the biological process, and have been designed both to prevent and to achieve successful pregnancy. When successful, these technologies are the miracle of life for couples who have often spent years trying to have a child, and who have exhausted all other avenues for conceiving a child of their own. We are so often amazed how science and medicine have brought human reproduction to new heights. It is not uncommon for us to hear news about a mother giving birth to multiple babies, national geographic and discovery channels showing the process of human reproduction in a laboratory, and the likes, that leave us in awe “Nakakabilib, and galing naman” is what we often say . But should we accept these technologies as it is. What we often see is already the end of a means. Have we dared assessing the morality of such means? While this new reproductive technologies give great hope to infertile couples and make many new reproductive arrangements possible, they also raise many difficult and complex moral issues and questions. What is the morality of these procedures? What does it mean to separate conception from the act of sexual union? To whom should these technologies be made available? What is the moral status of the fertilized embryos? Those who dismiss these questions as irrelevant or inconsequential show disrespect for human dignity and human life. B. Presentation of the bioethical issue and other related ideas/ issue
Definition and Types of Artificial Insemination
Artificial Insemination – refers to an assisted method of reproduction in which a man’s semen is deposited into the woman’s reproductive tract through the use of instruments to bring about conception unattained or unattainable by natural fertile intercourse.
Two basic types of A.I.
1. Homologous insemination/ AIH – semen is obtained from the husband a. 2 methods employed:
i. Homologous artificial insemination – a technique used to facilitate human conception through the transfer into a woman’s vagina of the sperm previously extracted from her husband ii. Homologous in vitro fertilization (IVF) and embryo transfer(ET) – a technique used to facilitate human conception through in vitro fertilization of the generative cells (sperm and ovum) of couple followed by transfer of the newly conceived embryo into the wife’s uterus for gestation. b. Justification for AIH:
i. Husband’s impotence
ii. Anatomical defects of husband’s urethra
iii. Oligospermia – deficient sperm count
iv. Some types of spinal injury, and certain physical and psychological problems that hinder normal intercourse. v. Husbands with previous vasectomy for contraceptive purposes who decides to have a child using his stored semen vi. Physiological obstruction in the genital apparatus in virtue of which sperm cannot the ovum in the oviduct 2. Heterologous Insemination /AID –a technique in which the semen is acquired from a donor other than the husband a. 2 methods
i. Heterologous artificial insemination – obtain human conception through the transfer into the genital tracts of the wife of a sperm previously extracted from a donor other than the husband....