Art of Questioning: Encourage Peer Evaluation

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ART OF QUESTIONING
* one of the basic skills of good teaching
* Erickson: In exercising the craft of good teaching, an educator must reach into the learner's hidden levels of knowing and awareness in order to help the learner reach new levels of thinking * Through the art of thoughtful questioning teachers can extract not only factual information, but aid learners in connecting concepts, making inferences, increasing awareness, encouraging creative and imaginative thought, aiding critical thinking processes, and generally helping learners explore deeper levels of knowing, thinking, and understanding. USES OF QUESTIONS

* stimulate thinking
* motivate
* diagnose difficulties
* discover interests
* help organize and evaluate
* relate pertinent experiences to the lesson
* focus attention to the key points of the lesson
* develop new appreciations and attitudes
* provide drill and practice
* show relationships, such as cause and effect
* encourage the application of concepts
* encourage peer evaluation
TYPES OF QUESTIONS
1. Open Questions
Characteristics:
1. They ask the respondent to think and reflect.
2. They will give you opinions and feelings.
3. They hand control of the conversation to the respondent. This makes open questions useful in the following situations: Usage| Example|
As follow-on from closed questions, to develop a conversation and open up someone who is rather quiet| What did you do on your holidays?How do you keep focused on your work?| To find out more about a person, their wants, needs, problems…etc.| What's keeping you awake these days?Why is that so important to you?| To get people to realize the extent of their problems (to which, of course, you have the solution).| I wonder what would happen if your customers complained even more?Mr. Ali used to go out late. What happened to him?| To get them feel good about you by asking about their health or otherwise demonstrating human concern about them.| How have you been after your operation?You're looking down. What's up?|

2. Closed questions
Characteristics:
4. They give you facts.
5. They are easy to answer.
6. They are quick to answer.
7. They keep control of the conversation with the questioner. This makes closed questions useful in the following situations: Usage| Example|
Opening question can be used in a conversation, as it makes it easy for the other person to answer, and doesn't force them to reveal too much about themselves.| It's great weather, isn't it?Where do you live?What time is it?| For testing their understanding (asking yes/no questions). This is also a great way to break into a long ramble.| Do you want to move into our apartment? Is it comfortable for your family?| For setting up a desired positive or negative frame of mind in them (asking successive questions with obvious answers either yes or no).| Are you happy with your current supplier?Do they give you all that you need?Would you like to find a better supplier?| For achieving closure of a persuasion (seeking yes to the big question).| If I can deliver this tomorrow, will you sign for it now?|

3. Leading Questions - questions that either includes the answer, point the listeners in the right direction, include some form of encouragement to send them to the right answer.

OTHER TYPES (Erickson)
1. Factual Questions
* questions that require pupils to give information or name a phenomenon. * Soliciting reasonably simple, straight forward answers based on obvious facts or awareness. These are usually at the lowest level of cognitive or affective processes and answers are frequently either right or wrong * Example: Name the Shakespeare play about the Prince of Denmark?

2. Convergent Questions
* questions that require students to interpret, solve problem or identify components. * Answers to these types of...
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