Title: The Application of Organizational Behaviour Theory
Module Leader:David Spicer
Seminar Tutor:Robert Finnigan
STATEMENT OF AUTHENTICITY:
I have read the University Regulations relating to plagiarism and certify that the above piece of coursework is all my own work and does not contain any unacknowledged work from any other sources. Signed:____________________________
In this essay I will cover two topics- ‘Motivation’ and ‘Leadership and Management’. I will describe what each of them means and how they contribute to organizations. Furthermore, I will present and explain the main theories for each subject and give an example of how they work in an organization. I have chosen these two topics because, in my opinion, they are significantly related to each other. Each one is crucial to every organization and is vital for the organization’s ability to function properly. For me, ‘Motivation’ and ‘Leadership’ are the two dominant driving forces of an organization. Together they form a symbiotic relationship which’s main purpose is to set up a connection between the manager and the employees. John Bratton (2007) gives the definition for motivation: “The forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity and persistence of voluntary behaviour.” Motivation is a composition of persistence, effort and direction and its purpose is achieving certain goals. Campbell, Dunnette, Lawler and Weick (1970) describe the process of motivation as “The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal”. Effort can be described as the amount of work one exercises over a certain task and persistence means that one should always finish what he or she has begun doing. Direction is a third characteristic related to motivation. That is the direction to which the goals are directed, it depends whether they serve personal or organizational interests. Basically this means that we must set ourselves challenging goals and strive to accomplish them by putting all our effort in what we do and at the end do it efficiently and effectively. Nonetheless, this is not an easy task to do especially if your job is to motivate people. For example is a manager who wants his employees to do their job effectively every day. ‘Effectively’, as Bratton (2007, p.249) describes, means “closing the gap between the workers potential to work and their willingness to maximize effort towards the attainment of work objectives”. Motivation can be intrinsic and extrinsic- deriving from an intrinsic will for the accomplishment of certain goals or a consequence of extrinsic factors. Intrinsic motivation comes when people are internally motivated to create something which evokes joy in them. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation comes when people are motivated by an external satisfaction such as money or a grade. Motivation theories are divided into two groups. These are content and process theories. According to Bratton (2007), content theories are developed under the assumptions that workers are influenced by a summarised set of needs whereas process theories define motivation as a cognitive process workers experience. Among the most famous content theories are Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Herzberg’s two-factor need theory. Abraham Maslow (1908- 1970) developed a model for motivation based on human needs. According to this model needs are differentiated into five hierarchical levels. There are two groups of needs. The first group is predominant. It contains the four “lower-level needs in the hierarchy”. The second group is of only one level which expresses the self-actualization need (Bratton, 2010). In accordance with Maslow people strive to satisfy their lower needs before they move on to a higher need. Reaching the highest level, self-actualization, means that the behaviour of the individual is no longer...